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Design and Implementation of 2-D Transform Architecture for Multi-Standard Video Applications and Intra Frame Coder for H.264/AVC High Profile
|關鍵字:||Intra Frame Coder for H.264 High Profile;H.264高級規範之幀內畫面編碼器;H.264 Intra Prediction Generator for high profile;Multi-Standard Video Applications;2-D transform;H.264高級規範之幀內預測產生器;多視訊標準;二維轉換||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| ITU-T Recommendation H.263: Video coding for low bitrate communication, Mar. 1996.  ITU-T Recommendation H.264: Advanced Video Coding for Generic Audiovisual Service, Mar. 2005.  “Proposed SMPTE Standard for Television: VC-1 Compressed Video Bitstream Format and Decoding Process,” Document 421M, SMPTE, Aug. 2005.  M. J. Narasimha and A. M. Peterson, “On the computation of the discrete cosine transform,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 26, no.6, pp. 934-936, June 1978.  S. Yu and E. E. Swartzlander Jr., “A scaled DCT architecture with the CORDIC algorithm,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 160-167, Jan. 2002.  S.-F. Hsiao, Y. H. Hu, T.-B. Juang, and C.-H. 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首先，我們使用新式分散式算術演算法（NEDA）來實現我們的2-D多重轉換架構，採用這演算法不需要乘法和ROM，讓電路可以用簡單的位移器和加法器就可以完成。我們也利用新式分散式算術演算法提出了一個有效的2-D轉換架構，且利用單一核心即可完成傳統DCT的8x8運算以及H.264/AVC 的8x8與4x4整數轉換、4x4 Hadamard轉換以支援多視訊編碼標準的應用。針對H.264/AVC標準，我們使用相同的演算法，提出了一個高處理量的直接2-D多重轉換架構，一個4x4區塊只需2個週期或1個週期即可完成運算。
此外，我們亦提出了一個工作於207.4MHz和每秒30張畫面HD1080P解析度的8平行度H.264高級規範幀內畫面編碼架構。利用所提出的單一核心之多重轉換架構，可以同時產生整數轉換和Hadamard轉換的結果，來達到減少執行週期與維持影像品質。同時我們在影像編碼的排程上，提出了I8MB/I16MB/I4MB交錯的排程，來使得硬體使用效率大大的提昇。而在幀內預測架構上，我們使用了種子（seed）運算的方法，使得幀內預測影像可以在2個週期完成4×4影像區塊，8個週期完成8x8影像區塊。在編碼架構上，我們採用了記憶體交錯（Ping-Pong mode）的技術，使得預測階段與編碼階段得以分離，如此才可完成HD1080P畫面的編碼。最後實作結果顯示本架構可工作於207.4MHz的頻率下，完成HD1080P＠30fps的影像壓縮而晶片面積為1.26×1.26mm2。我們架構的模式判斷是採用Hadamard Transform的相減轉換絕對值之和（SATD），且有支援I16MB平面模式的預測畫面。若將我們的架構應用於HD720P@30（1280×720）畫面上的話，只需工作於92MHz即可完成，因此可以將此電路架構運用於多種影像相關的電子產品上。
First, we adopt a new distributed arithmetic algorithm (NEDA) to implement our architecture. Without adopting multiplier and ROM, the architecture can easily be implemented by using shifts and adders. Therefore, we propose an efficient two-dimensional (2-D) transform architecture with unified kernel that can support traditional 8x8 DCT, the 8x8 and 4x4 integer transform, and the 4x4 Hadamard transform for multi-standard video coding applications. For the H.264/AVC standard, we also propose a high throughput direct 2-D multiple transform by using the same algorithm; therefore, a 4x4 block can be performed in two or one cycle.
In thesis, with eight parallel processing elements, the H.264 intra frame coder architecture for high profile is also proposed to achieve HD1080P@30fps. Also, we propose a unified kernel multi-transform architecture which can achieve the integer transform and the Hadamard transform simultaneously, reduce operation cycles, and maintain image quality. In our image coding schedule, we propose I8MB/I16MB/I4MB interleaving schedule to increase hardware utilization. Besides, a seed method is employed in calculating the result of the intra prediction so as to achieve the 4×4 block predictor at two cycles and the 8x8 block predictor at eight cycles in the intra predictor unit. In the entropy coding architecture, we adopt memory interleaving technique to differentiate between the prediction phase and the coding phase. Hence, this technique can achieve the real-time video coding for HD1080P applications. According to the experimental results, the results of the chip implementation show that the proposed architecture can operate at 207.4MHz to achieve HD1080P@30fps image compression, and the chip size is 1.26×1.26mm2. Furthermore, our architecture adopts the Hadamard transform (SATD) for the mode decision, and supports the plane mode of the I16MB prediction. The proposed architecture can perform 1280×720@30fps in real-time at 92MHz as it is applied to the HD720P(1280×720)specification. Consequently, the proposed architecture can be utilized in various mobile video applications.
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