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標題: 藉由週期調變射頻電漿製作p/i (奈米矽/非晶矽多層膜)/n太陽電池
p/i(nc-Si:Hx/a-Si:Hy multilayers)/n solar cells prepared by periodical switching RF plasma
作者: 許子衿
Hsu, Tzu-Ching
關鍵字: nc-Si:H;奈米矽;multilayers;solar cell;多層膜;太陽電池
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] Baojie Yan, Guozhen Yue, Jessica M. Owens, Jeffrey Yang, and Subhendu Guha, “Over 15% Efficient Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Based Triple-Junction Solar Cells Incorporating Nanocrystalline Silicon”, IEEE 1477-1480 (2006) [2] Sumita Mukhopadhyay*, Amartya Chowdhury, Swati Ray,” Nanocrystalline silicon: A material for thin film solar cells with better stability”, Thin Solid Films 516 , 6824–6828 (2008) [3] S.E. Shaheen, D.S. Ginley, G.E. Jabbour, ”Based Photovoltaics: Toward Low-Cost Power Generation”, Mrs. Bull.30,10 (2005) [4] Gavin Conibeer a,*, Martin Green a, Richard Corkish a, Young Cho a, Eun-Chel Cho b, Chu-Wei Jiang a, Thipwan Fangsuwannarak a, Edwin Pink a, Yidan Huang a, Tom Puzzer a, Thorsten Trupke a, Bryce Richards c, Avi Shalav a, Kuo-lung Lin d,” Silicon nanostructures for third generation photovoltaic solar cells”, Thin Solid Films 511 – 512, 654 – 662 (2006) [5] 洪愷藝, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Multilayer Solar Cells”,中興大學電機碩士論文(2008) [6] Pere Roca i Cabarrocas‡, Anna Fontcuberta i Morral, Sarra Lebib,and Yves Poissant,” Plasma production of nanocrystalline silicon particles and polymorphous silicon thin films for large-area electronic devices”, Pure Appl. Chem., Vol. 74, No. 3, pp. 359–367 (2002) [7] Yukio Watanabe, Masaharu Shiratani and Kazunori Koga,” Nucleation and subsequent growth of clusters in reactive plasmas”, Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 11, A229–A233 (2002) [8] S. Lebib and P. Roca i Cabarrocasa),” Effects of ion energy on the crystal size and hydrogen bonding in plasma-deposited nanocrystalline silicon thin films”, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 97, 104334 (2005) [9] Masaharu Shiratani, Shinichi Maeda, Kazunori Koga and Yukio Watanabe, “ Effect of Gas Temperature Gradient, Pulsed Discharge Modulation, and Hydrogen Dilution on Particle Growth in Silane RF Discharges”, Jpn.J.Appl. Phys. Vol 39 pp.287-293 (2000) [10] P. Roca i Cabarrocas*,” New approaches for the production of nano-, micro-, and polycrystalline silicon thin films”, phys. stat. sol. (c) 1, No. 5, 1115– 1130 (2004) [11] Takuya Matsui*, Akihisa Matsuda, Michio Kondo,” High-rate microcrystalline silicon deposition for p–i–n junction solar cells”, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 90 3199–3204 (2006) [12] A.M. Funde a, Nabeel Ali Bakr a, D.K. Kamble a, R.R. Hawaldar b, D.P. Amalnerkar b, S.R. Jadkar c, “Influence of hydrogen dilution on structural, electrical and optical properties of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) thin films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD)”, Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells 92 1217– 1223 (2008) [13] Amartya Chowdhury *, Sumita Mukhopadhyay, Swati Ray,” Fabrication of low defect density nanocrystalline silicon absorber layer and its application in thin-film solar cell”, Thin Solid Films 516 6858–6862 (2008) [14] C.R. Wronski*, R.W. Collins,” Phase engineering of a-Si:H solar cells for optimized performance”, Solar Energy 77 877–885 (2004) [15] J. Bailat,a) E. Vallat-Sauvain, L. Feitknecht, C. Droz, and A. Shah,” Microstructure and open-circuit voltage of n-i-p microcrystalline silicon solar cells”, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS VOLUME 93, NUMBER 9 5727-5732 (2003) [16] Eun-Chel Cho,1 Martin A. Green,1 Gavin Conibeer,1 Dengyuan Song,1 Young-Hyun Cho,1 Giuseppe Scardera,1 Shujuan Huang,1 Sangwook Park,1 X. J. Hao,1 Yidan Huang,1 and Lap Van Dao2,” Silicon Quantum Dots in a Dielectric Matrix for All-Silicon Tandem Solar Cells”, Hindawi Publishing CorporationAdvances in OptoElectronics Volume (2007) [17] Gyu-Hyun Lee and Jong-Hwan Yoon*,” Growth of crystalline grains in microcrystalline silicon films”, PHYSICAL REVIEW B 73, 193302 (2006) [18] Saravanapriyan Sriramana), Mayur S. Valipa, Dimitrios Maroudasb)“Hydrogen-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films I. Simulation and analysis of film postgrowth treatment with H2 plasmas” JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS 100, 053514 (2006)
本論文實驗為使用射頻13.56 MHz脈波調變電漿輔助化學氣相沉積 (Pulsed-PECVD) 技術,以改變射頻功率、氫稀釋比與壓力製作氫化奈米矽與氫化非晶矽薄膜。藉由週期性變化射頻電漿狀態製作nc-Si:Hx/a-Si:Hy多層膜,及氫電漿處理奈米矽子層界面,最後將多層膜應用在太陽電池的本質層,探討其對太陽電池特性的影響。
由單層膜與多層膜本質層太陽電池的電流-電壓特性可知,C_3t太陽電池為使用沉積壓力3 torr之單層膜本質層,與多層膜太陽電池相比有較高效率,歸因於其沒有許多子層界面,光生載子在本質層中復合少,所以短路電流與效率比多層膜太陽電池高。對多層膜本質層太陽電池而言,適度地脈波調變氫電漿處理,能減少子層界面的缺陷。以氫電漿處理可改善多層膜界面的品質與增加太陽電池的效能。

In this thesis, 13.56 MHz plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (Pulsed-PECVD) with pulse modulation of RF plasma is used to fabricate hydrogenated nano-crystal silicon (nc-Si:H) and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films by changing RF power, hydrogen dilution and pressure. The nc-Si:Hx/a-Si:Hy multilayers were fabricated by periodically changing RF plasma conditions, and hydrogen plasma was used to treat the interfaces of nc-Si:Hx sublayers. These multilayers are used as the i-layer of the solar cells to explore how multilayers influence the characteristics of solar cells.
The deposition rate, optical properties of bandgap (Eg), refractive index (n) and dielectric constants (ε1 and ε2) were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). The surface roughness of the films was measured by atomic force microscope (AFM), and the periodical structures of nc-Si:Hx/a-Si:Hy multilayers were measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The photo, dark current and the electro-optical characteristics of solar cells were obtained through I-V system.
For single a-Si:H layers, increasing plasma power, hydrogen dilution and reducing the pressure of deposition can induce the growth of silicon nanoparticles and increase the density of nanoparticles in the nc-Si:H films. Increasing H2 treatment time, the interfaces of multilayers were passivated and became smooth.
From the I-V characteristics of single and multilayer i-layers of solar cells, the C_3t cell with a single i-layer deposited at 3 torr has high efficiency than those of multilayer i-layers of solar cells. It is due to that there are no many interfaces of sublayers, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in the i-layer is small, thus the short-circuit current and efficiency are higher than those of multilayer i-layers of solar cells. For multilayer i-layers of solar cells, the short-circuit current, fill factor and efficiency of solar cells can be increased by suitable pulse modulation of H2 plasma treatment to passivate the defects at the interfaces between the sublayers. Hydrogen plasma treatment can improve the quality of the interfaces of the multilayers and increase the efficiency of solar cells.
其他識別: U0005-2708200909142700
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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