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標題: Transmission efficiency of Pierce's disease by Bothrogonia ferruginea (F.) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Taiwan
作者: 張薰尹
Hsun-Yin Chang
Tzu-Pi Huang
Shu-Jen Tuan
關鍵字: Bothrogonia ferruginea (F.);Pierce's Disease;Xylella fastidiosa;acquisition rate;transmission efficiency;黑尾大葉蟬;葡萄皮爾斯病;木質部難養菌;獲菌率;傳播效率
Project: 農林學報, Volume 63, Issue 4, Page(s) 205-215.
黑尾大葉蟬(Bothrogonia ferruginea (F.))屬半翅目、葉蟬科、大葉蟬亞科,為刺吸植株木質部汁液者,常棲息於田間菊科雜草叢。葡萄皮爾斯病(Pierce's disease)是由木質部難養菌(Xylella fastidiosa Wells et al.)阻塞植株導管而產生葉緣焦枯病徵,在台灣中部地區已發生十餘年。本研究擬證實此葉蟬是否具有媒介葡萄皮爾斯病病原菌X. fastidiosa之能力,故利用該菌專一性引子進行葉蟬獲菌率及致使植株感染率之探討。於台中市后里區及外埔區之皮爾斯病疫區的葡萄園內,採集到明顯葉緣焦枯病徵之黑后與金香葡萄罹病枝條,經PD2培養基及PCR鑑定確為感染X. fastidiosa。將黑尾大葉蟬侷限於田間採集之金香罹病株上,經24小時之獲菌處理後,其獲菌率為42~60%;在田間採得之罹病枝條中以8~9月者經葉蟬吸食之獲菌率高於6~7月者,但其間不具顯著性差異。而經由葉蟬刺吸接種可造成金香及黑后植株染病,傳菌率分別為27.3及9.1%,接種植株需經過4個月之潛伏期,才逐漸表現葡萄皮爾斯病葉緣焦枯壞疽病徵,並可從接種植株內再分離出相同的病原菌及PCR陽性反應,唯在室內供水充足之條件下所呈現之植株病徵,不如田間酷熱環境下表現之嚴重焦枯程度。雖然黑尾大葉蟬可自罹病葡萄植株獲菌、並傳菌至健康葡萄植株上,引起金香及黑后二種釀酒葡萄植株感染皮爾斯病,但此葉蟬在田間之媒介效率、出現於葡萄果園之頻率、和棲群密度等生態資料仍需進一步研究,以證實其為臺灣葡萄皮爾斯病之媒介昆蟲。

A xylem sap-sucking leafhopper, Bothrogonia ferruginea (F.) (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae), usually inhabits in composite weeds. Pierce's Disease (PD) of grapevines caused by a xylem-limited bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa, occurred in central Taiwan for over a decade. The grape vessels were blocked by propagative bacteria, causing the symptom of leaf scorch around margins. For investigating the transmission ability of B. ferruginea to both grapevine cultivars, Golden Muscat and Black Queen, the specific primers of X. fastidiosa were used for PCR amplification to detect the acquisition rate of this leafhopper and the infection rate of grapevines. PD-infected grapevines were collected from Waipu and Houli District, Taichung. The causal bacterium was pure-cultured on the PD2 medium and identified by PCR using X. fastidiosa specific primers. The acquisition rates of X. fastidiosa from infected grapevines by B. ferruginea, after 24 h acquisition access period ranged from 42 to 60%. The acquisition rates during June to July is higher than those during August to September, however they are not significantly different. The transmission efficiency of X. fastidiosa to grapevines by B. ferruginea was 27.3 and 9.1% on Golden Muscat and Black Queen, respectively. All the PD-infected receptor plants were confirmed by PCR and PD2 cultures. After passing a four-month latent period, the leaf-scorch symptom appeared on inoculated grapevine; however, it was not as severe as that on grapevines growing in harsh-dry fields during late summer and fall. Based on successful acquisition from infected plants and transmission of X. fastidiosa to healthy grapevines, it was suggested that B. ferruginea is capable of transmitting PD. Nevertheless, more information regarding occurrence, population density, and the natural transmission efficacy of this leafhopper in the field need to be investigated before suggesting it as a PD vector.
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