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Trajectory Planning and Adaptive Trajectory Tracking Control for a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter
|關鍵字:||Adaptive Backstepping;適應性倒逆步;Lyapunov Stability;Radial Basis Function Neural Network;Recurrent Neural Network;Small-scale Autonomous Helicopter;Trajectory Tracking;李亞普諾夫穩定;輻狀基底函數類神經網路;遞迴式類神經網路;小型自主式直升機;軌跡追蹤||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| R.K. Heffley and M.A. Mnich, Minimum Complexity Helicopter Simulation Model, NASA CR-177476, 1988.  W. Johnson, Helicopter Theory, Princeton University Press, 1980.  R.W. Prouty, Helicopter Performance, Stability and Control, Krieger Pub. Co., 1990.  G.D. Padfield, Helicopter Flight Dynamics: The Theory and Application of Flying Qualities and Simulation Modeling, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 1996.  B. Mettler, C. Dever and E. Feron, “Scaling effects and dynamic characteristics of miniature rotorcraft,” AIAA J. Guidance, Control and Dynamics, vol. 27, no. 3, pp.466-478, 2004.  E.N. Johnson and P.A. 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This dissertation presents three nonlinear adaptive trajectory tracking controllers as well as an on-line trajectory generation method for a small scale autonomous helicopter. The proposed trajectory tracking controllers are mainly on the basis of the adaptive backstepping design technique with an integral action. Unlike those approximate modeling approaches neglecting the nonlinear coupling terms among force equations, the developments of three proposed controllers are intentionally based on the complete rigid-body model such that the closed-loop helicopter systems are guaranteed to be semi-globally ultimately bounded and have satisfactory trajectory tracking performance over its entire flight envelope. Three different adaptive techniques are used to cope with the coupling terms existing in the force equations of the complete rigid-body model. In particular, RBFNN and RNN are adopted to accommodate the adaptive backstepping integral scheme with an augmented approximation function and robust performance respectively. Furthermore, the local path generation based on the elastic band concept is proposed to find an on-line collision-free trajectory for the tracking controller of a small scale helicopter. In addition to the complete evolution of synthesis process and stability analysis, the proposed controllers are verified by using a software-in-the-loop approach which implements a high fidelity dynamic model of a small-scale helicopter. The effectiveness and merits of the proposed methods are exemplified by conducting several dynamic simulations, including specified maneuvers of hovering and trajectory tracking, autonomous tasks of obstacle avoidance, and terrain following.
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