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標題: 小型自主直升機之軌跡規畫與適應軌跡追蹤控制
Trajectory Planning and Adaptive Trajectory Tracking Control for a Small Scale Autonomous Helicopter
作者: 李啟泰
Lee, Chi-Tai
關鍵字: Adaptive Backstepping;適應性倒逆步;Lyapunov Stability;Radial Basis Function Neural Network;Recurrent Neural Network;Small-scale Autonomous Helicopter;Trajectory Tracking;李亞普諾夫穩定;輻狀基底函數類神經網路;遞迴式類神經網路;小型自主式直升機;軌跡追蹤
出版社: 電機工程學系所
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本論文針對小型自主直升機提出三個適應性軌跡追蹤控制器與一個線上軌跡產生方法。軌跡追蹤控制器皆架構於適應性倒逆步積分設計技術,且不同於過去近似模型將耦合效應省略的作法,本文的軌跡控制器設計刻意基礎於完整的剛性體運動方程式,如此可以確保直升機的閉迴路系統是半全域有界穩定,且在整個的飛行包絡線內具有令人滿意的軌跡追蹤性能。三種不同的適應性技術分別用以克服完整剛性體運動方程式中的力量耦合項,尤其是,分別成功地整合RBFNN與RNN不同型式之類神經網路的近似函式,提升適應性倒逆步控制器的強健性。此外,植基於彈性帶(elastic band)概念的區域軌跡產生方法,可為上述之小型自主直升機的軌跡追蹤控制器,提供即時安全無碰撞的飛行參考軌跡。除了完整的設計過程與穩定分析之外,本文所提出的軌跡控制器與軌跡產生方法,亦經過高度仿真的小型直升機動態模式進行軟體迴路方式驗證,藉由執行各種動態的模擬範例,包括停懸與軌跡追蹤等特定動作,以及自動完成障礙迴避與地形追隨等任務,用以展現其效用與技術優點。

This dissertation presents three nonlinear adaptive trajectory tracking controllers as well as an on-line trajectory generation method for a small scale autonomous helicopter. The proposed trajectory tracking controllers are mainly on the basis of the adaptive backstepping design technique with an integral action. Unlike those approximate modeling approaches neglecting the nonlinear coupling terms among force equations, the developments of three proposed controllers are intentionally based on the complete rigid-body model such that the closed-loop helicopter systems are guaranteed to be semi-globally ultimately bounded and have satisfactory trajectory tracking performance over its entire flight envelope. Three different adaptive techniques are used to cope with the coupling terms existing in the force equations of the complete rigid-body model. In particular, RBFNN and RNN are adopted to accommodate the adaptive backstepping integral scheme with an augmented approximation function and robust performance respectively. Furthermore, the local path generation based on the elastic band concept is proposed to find an on-line collision-free trajectory for the tracking controller of a small scale helicopter. In addition to the complete evolution of synthesis process and stability analysis, the proposed controllers are verified by using a software-in-the-loop approach which implements a high fidelity dynamic model of a small-scale helicopter. The effectiveness and merits of the proposed methods are exemplified by conducting several dynamic simulations, including specified maneuvers of hovering and trajectory tracking, autonomous tasks of obstacle avoidance, and terrain following.
其他識別: U0005-1807201009164500
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