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標題: 臺灣文心蘭切花產業
The Industry of Cut Oncidium in Taiwan
作者: Jung-Hua Hsu
Ruey-Song Lin
關鍵字: Industry of cut flower;Production and marketing;Culture system;切花產業;產銷現況;栽培體系
Project: 興大園藝, Volume 38, Issue 2, Page(s) 95-107.
Oncidium is one of the exported flowers with great potential. In Taiwan, it has recently become the first cut flower for export. In 2011, the culture area even covers 217.26 hectares which has become the biggest culture area of oncidium in Taiwan over the past years, and the export amounts to 25370 thousand sticks of cut flowers. The export value reaches 14320 thousand dollars (about NT 430 million dollars). In Taiwan, 80% cut oncidium production is exported to other countries, and Japan is the main export market. In variety, the two major export cut oncidium are Oncidium Gower Ramsey and Oncidium Honey Angle. In 2011, 25% in export cut Oncidium Honey Angle and 75 % in export cut Oncidium Gower Ramsey for the whole year. In Taiwan, most of the oncidium is grown in sunshade environment. Based on the characteristic of root, the culture medium should be chosen by its diversity, and blend media with different functions in order to serve a twin purpose-dewater and water absorption. As to the nutrition management, compost should be provided on the principle that “ a small amount at a time and several times.” In addition, according to different growing periods, adjust the proportion of fertilization so as to have ideal quality of flowering. In Taiwan, flowering of oncidium can be seen all year round. It is in season from May to June and September to October each year. It leads to the low price of the cut flower in these months and affects farmers’ benefit. Therefore, the studies of vegetative, flowering physiologically and technology of flowering adjusting are the essential requirement of the industry. The development of oncidium industry in Taiwan is facing not only the problem of overly intensive production of cut flower and the pressure of increasingly great production of cut flower, but also the stress of competitiveness challenged. In view of this, promoting the quality of cut oncidium production and export products by establishing more complete culture system becomes the essential work. In export markets, create a trust for the quality in order to strengthen the competitiveness of cut oncidium. The prospects of oncidium industry include exploring the ways of effectively conducting the adjustment of production periods so as to exactly control flowering periods and alleviate the strain of increasing production. Moreover, establish a complete culture system to promote the quality of cut oncidium production in Taiwan. Besides, develop diversified export markets in face of competitiveness challenged by other countries. Let Taiwan oncidium sold in the international market have prominent performance of better price in order to create more output value and make more profits.

文心蘭是台灣具有潛力之外銷花卉之一,目前已成為台灣外銷上的第一大切花,2008 年以後文心蘭栽培面積突破 200 公頃,2011 年栽培面積更是達到 217.26 公頃,為台灣文心蘭栽培歷年來最大的栽培面積,2011 年在切花外銷量上更高達 2537 萬枝,產值達 1432 萬美元,約台幣 4 億 3 千萬元左右,台灣文心蘭的切花生產有 80% 是外銷至其他國家,日本是台灣文心蘭切花主要的外銷市場,以 Oncidium Gower Ramsey 與 Oncidium Honey Angle 為台灣目前二大外銷主力的切花品種,2011年的切花外銷上,Oncidium Honey Angle約佔25%,而Oncidium Gower Ramsey 約佔 75%的文心蘭切花外銷量。台灣文心蘭之栽培環境大多在遮陰網室進行栽培生產,依文心蘭植株的根系生長的特性,栽培介質宜選擇多元性、具不同功能作用之介質去進行調配,以達到兼具排水、吸水性具佳的目的;營養管理上之施肥供應以少量多施為原則,且依照不同生育期間調整肥料施用比例,以達到理想的開花品質;依文心蘭生育習性在台灣終年皆可開花,然盛產期集中於每年的 5~6 月及 9~10 月,常造成這些月分的切花價格低落影響農民收益,因此在文心蘭營養生長、開花生理及花期調節技術之研究,是產業上的重要需求;台灣文心蘭產業發展,除了在切花產量上過度集中與日漸龐大的壓力外,國際上的競爭壓力也是另一項挑戰,建立完善的栽培管理體系來提高文心蘭切花生產之品質及外銷之到貨品質便為重要工作,以建立外銷市場對台灣文心蘭切花品質之信心,藉以強化台灣文心蘭切花在國際市場上之競爭力;文心蘭產業上的願景,包括開發有效進行產期調節的方法來精確控制花期,減輕產量日益龐大的壓力,以及建立完善的栽培體系,強化台灣文心蘭切花的生產品質,以發展多元的外銷市場,面對其他國家的競爭,讓台灣文心蘭在國際販售的舞台時,也能有著亮眼的價格表現,創造出更高的產值及收益。
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