Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8888
標題: 具溫度漂移校準之純CMOS參考電壓電路及改良式無外部電容之LDO穩壓器
A Pure CMOS Voltage Reference Circuit with Temperature Drift Calibration and an Improved Capacitor-Free Low Dropout Regulator
作者: 吳健誠
Wu, Chien-Cheng
關鍵字: 參考電壓;reference;線性穩壓器;LDO
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] W. Rhett Davis, J. Wilson, S. Mick, J. Xu, H. Hua, C. Mineo, A. M. Sule, M. Steer, and P. D. Franzon, “Demystifying 3D ICs: The Pros and Cons of Going Vertical,” IEEE Design & Test of Computers, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 498-510, 2005. [2] S. Wong, A. El-Gamal, P. Griffin, Y. Nishi, F. Pease, and J. Plummer, “Monolithic 3D Integrated Circuits,” IEEE Symposium on VLSI Tech. System and Circuits, pp. 1-4, 2007. [3] E. C. Oh and P. D. Franzon, “Design Considerations and Benefits of Three-Dimensional Ternary Content Addressable Memory,” IEEE Custom Integrated Circuits Conference, pp. 591-594, 2007 [4] M. Lin, J. Luo, Y. Ma, “A Low-Power Monolithically Stacked 3D-TCAM,” IEEE Intl. Symp. Circuits and Systems, pp. 3318-3321, 2008. [5] P. Zhou, Y. Ma, Z. Li, R. P. Dick, L. Shang, H. Zhou, X. Hong, Q. Zhou, “3D-STAF: Scalable Temperature and Leakage Aware Floorplanning for Three-Dimensional Integrated Circuits,” IEEE/ACM Intl. Conf. Computer-Aided Design, pp. 590-597, 2007. [6] D. Sekar, C. King, B. Dang, T. Spencer, H. Thacker, P. Joseph, M. Bakir and J. Meindl, “A 3D-IC Technology with Integrated Microchannel Cooling,” IEEE Intl. Interconnect technology conf., pp. 13-15, 2008. [7] “Quad Serial Input 12-Bit Voltage Output Digital-To-Analog Converter,” Specification, Texas Instruments Integrated Products, Sept. 2000. [8] David A. John, Ken Martin, Analog Integrated Circuit Design, Wiley. [9] Edward S. Yang, Microelectronic Devices, McGRAW-Hill, pp.102. [10] D. Hilbiber, “A New Semiconductor Voltage Standard,” ISSCC Dig. Tech. Papers, pp.32-33, 1964. [11] B. Razavi, Design of Analog CMOS Integrate Circuit, McGRAW-Hill, 2001. [12] K. E. Kuijk, “A Precision Reference Voltage Source,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 8, pp. 222-226, 1973. [13] K. N. Leung and P. K. T. Mok, “A sub-1-V 15ppm/ oC CMOS Bandgap Voltage Reference Without Requiring Low Threshold Voltage Device,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 37, pp.536-530, Apr. 2002. [14] K. N. Leung and P. K. T. Mok, “A CMOS Voltage Reference Based on Weighted △VGS for CMOS Low-Dropout Linear Regulators,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 38, pp.146-150, Jan. 2003. [15] Chia-Wei Chang; Tien-Yu Lo; Chia-Min Chen; Kuo-His Wu; Chung-Chih Hung; “A Low-Power CMOS Voltage Reference Circuit Based on Subthreshold Operation” IEEE International Circuit Symp. Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), 2007, pp. 3844-3847. [16] G. De Vita and G. Iannaccone “A Sub-1-V, 10ppm/ oC, Nanopower Voltage Reference Generator,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol.42, pp.1526-1542, July 2007. [17] Yongjia Li; Xiaojuan Xia; Weifeng Sun; Shengli Lu; “A 760mV CMOS Voltage Reference With Mobility and Subthreshold Slope Compensation” IEEE International Conference on ASIC, 2009, pp.1145-1148. [18] G. De Vita and G. Iannaccone, and P. Andrani, “A 300nW,12ppm/oC Voltage reference in a digital 0.35μm CMOS process” Symp. VLSI Circuits Dig. Tech. Papers, 2006, pp. 81-82. [19] “Technical Review of Low Dropout Voltage Regulator Operation and Performance,” Application Report, Texas Instruments, Aug.1999 [20] M. Layachi & Y. Chouia, “Low Dropout Voltage Regulaotr,” Department of Electrical Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal. [21] K.C. Kwok and P.K.T. Mok, “Pole-Zero Tracking Frequency Compensation For Low Dropout Regulator,” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Scottsdale, Arizona, USA Vol. IV, pp. 735-738, May 2002. [22] 黃志揚, “低壓降線性穩壓器頻率補償之改善方法,” 2004年碩士論文, 國立清華大學 [23] S. Szczepanski, J. Jakusz, and R. Schaumann, “A linear fully balanced CMOS OTA for VHF filterfing Applications” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Analog and Digital Signal Proc, vol. 44 pp.174-187, Mar. 1997. [24] Airong Liu and Huazhong Yang, “Low Voltage Low Power Class-AB OTA with Negative Resistance Load,” International Conference on Communications Circuits and Systems, pp. 2251-2254, June 2006. [25] ESCHAUZIER R.G.H., KERKLAAN L.P.T., HUIJSING J.H.: “A 100-MHz 100-dB operational amplifier with multipath nested Miller compensation structure,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, 1992, 27, pp. 1709-1717 [26] Chia-Min Chen; Chung-Chih Hung; “A capacitor-free CMOS low-dropout voltage regulator,” IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, ISCAS 2009, pp. 2525-2528 [27] Dongpo Chen; Lenian He; Xiaolang Yan; “A Low-dropout Regulator with Unconditional Stability and Low Quiescent Current,” International Conference on Communications, Circuits and Systems Proceedings, 2006, pp. 2215-2218. [28] Socheat Heng; Cong-Kha Pham; “Improvement of LDO’s PSRR deteriorated by reducing power consumption: Implementation and experimental results,” IEEE International Conference on IC Design and Technology, ICICDT, 2009, pp. 11-15. [29] Huang, W.-J. ; Liu, S.-I. ; “Capacitor-free low dropout regulators using nested Miller compensation with active resistor and 1-bit programmable capacitor array,” IET Circuit, Devices & Systems , pp. 306-316, 2008. [30] O. Khouri, R. Micheloni, S. Gregori, and G. Torelli, “Fast Voltage Regulator for Multilevel Flash Memories,” in Proceedings of the 2000 IEEE International Workshop on Memory Technology, Design and Testing, pp.34-38, Aug.2 [31] A. Maity, R. G. Raghavendra, and P. Mandal, “On-chip Voltage Regulator with Improved Transient Response,” in Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on VLSI Design, pp. 522-527, 2005.
摘要: 
近年來,由於積體電路技術日益成熟,可攜式電子產品也愈來愈多。在可攜式產品裡,講求的是體積小、外觀精美、功能強大,所以在積體電路上,也朝著低功耗來發展。
在參考電壓電路的應用上,種類繁多如:D/A、A/D轉換器及穩壓器等,皆需要參考電壓電路提供一個有效且準確的參考電壓值,在本論文中,提出了一個具溫度漂移校準之純CMOS參考電壓電路,可以在晶片完成後,經由其中的開關調微調其溫度係數,且保留了低操作電壓、低功耗、不受溫度影響及晶片面積小等優勢。此電路使用的是TSMC 0.18μm CMOS製程,下線後的量測結果顯示,其消耗功率為74nW,溫度係數經調整後為6.7ppm/oC,晶片積為0.0076mm2。
傳統的LDO穩壓電路,需要一個很大的外部電容(數μF),以維持電路的負回授穩定,但在積體電路裡,即使是nF的電容都是占用昂貴的晶片面積,也不符合成本。在本論文裡另一個主題為設計一個不需外部電容的線性穩壓器(cap-free LDO),此LDO採用的是3級的放大器設計,使用窩巢式米勒補償方式,可以將電路看成一個單一極點的電路使其達到穩定。使用的是TSMC 0.35μm CMOS製程,其設計的最大負載電流為150mA,從模擬結果顯示,輸出電壓為2.5V及3.3V時,輸入電壓分別為2.8V~5V 與3.3V~5V,其Dropout Voltage為300mV,靜態電流為96μA。在無外在電容時,且在最差的情形下,undershoot voltage為220mV,overshoot voltage為206mV。

In recent years, integrated circuit technology becomes more sophisticated, so more and more portable electronic products appear in our daily lives. The portable products require small sizes, nice looking, and multi-functions. Therefore, integrated circuits tend to very low power consumption.
In applications of the reference voltage circuits, many circuits such as: D/A, A/D converters, voltage regulators, etc., require a reference voltage circuit to provide the accurate reference voltage effectively. In this paper, we propose a low-voltage, low-power pure CMOS voltage reference circuit on very small area with temperature drift calibration. This circuit was fabricated on area of 0.0076mm2 using TSMC 0.18μm CMOS process. The measurement results reveal that the power consumption is 74nW, with temperature coefficient of 6.7ppm/oC after calibration.
The conventional LDO voltage regulators require a large external capacitor (a few μF) in order to maintain stability due to negative feedback. However, in the integrated circuits, even the nF capacitor occupies very large chip area, which is not cost effective. Another goal in this thesis is to design a linear regulator without external capacitors (cap-free LDO). The LDO utilizes a three-stage amplifier with nested Miller compensation. The circuit may be equivalent to a single pole circuit for stability. The proposed circuit was designed using TSMC 0.35μm CMOS process for the maximum load current of 150mA. The simulation results show that input voltages are 2.8V ~ 5V and 3.3V ~ 5V for the output voltage of 2.5V and 3.3V, respectively. The dropout voltage is 300mV, and the quiescent current is 96μA. For the worst case without external capacitors, the undershoot voltage is 220mV and the overshoot voltage is 206mV.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/8888
其他識別: U0005-2107201014223100
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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