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標題: Yann Martel's Life of Pi as a Bildungsroman: A Journey Towards Ecological Consciousness
論揚.馬泰爾小說《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》為成長小說: 一趟前往生態意識的旅程
作者: Sheng-Hong Huang
關鍵字: 成長小說;揚.馬泰爾;《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》;Bildungsroman;Yann Martel;Life of Pi
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The thesis aims to read Yann Martel's Life of Pi as an example of the Bildungsroman, examining how Pi changes from an anthropocentric view to one which takes interest of zoo animals, in particular, the tiger Richard Parker. In early part of Life of Pi, Pi told narrator how he lived by the Pondicherry zoo. Because of his personal background living together with the zoo animals, he perceives animals in terms of an anthropocentric view. I see that the view Pi initially looks at zoo animals is akin to the view the colonizer see the colonized. The statement which he argues the keeping of wild animals in captivity generates and corresponds with the racism/speciesism ideologies of imperialism. It is, however, important to note that after his interactions with Richard Parker, Pi considers Richard Parker as individual to be respected rather than an object to be confined. He treats Richard Parker as one of his companions and promises to keep Richard Parker alive. The transformation demonstrates Pi's ecological negotiation with Richard Parker. I point out that by training Richard Parker while Richard Parker resists Pi, Pi reconsiders his initial perspective of zoo animals as objects in terms of his anthropocentric view. Pi starts to care, love, and compassionate for Richard Parker, privileging Richard Parker's needs over his. Significantly, Pi's negotiation with Richard Parker offers him an opportunity to criticize the anthropocentric view. More interesting is to see that the device of anthropomorphism in Life of Pi is the means by which Pi reconnects to and appreciates for Richard Parker and animals. At last, in the last part of the novel, Pi's two versions of the survival tale is his critique of anthropocentricism.

本論文以生態成長的角度來看加拿大作家揚.馬泰爾( Yann Martel) 的小說《少年Pi的奇幻漂流》中主角Pi如何在透過與老虎的互動中,對動物園裡動物的看法有著慢慢成長和變化。小說的第一部分Pi提到了他小時在朋迪榭裡動物園的成長故事,他獨特的動物園觀是他以人類為中心去看動物園的動物,然而,筆者發現Pi在看待動物時,認為它們需要居住在動物園裡且被圈禁和馴養的想法是和帝國主義中看待他者和管理人種問題上不謀而合,但往後的漂流旅程中,筆者又發現了Pi在對待老虎理查.帕克時有著不同於他之前的動物園觀,Pi卻視老虎為同伴,認為老虎有必要和他一起生存下去。這種轉變是Pi跨越了他以往以人類為中心看待他者(the other)的世界觀,對於動物的生命有著不一樣的體悟,Pi藉由訓練理查.帕克老虎而抵抗的同時,調整和修正他原先以人類為中心的觀點去看待動物園的動物,此刻,Pi視老虎為個體並以老虎的需求為優先,這成長觀以他者需要為優先給予他日後對於人類為中心的論述做為批判。值得注意的是小說中的擬人化技巧是Pi重新建立起他與老虎共感和欣賞動物的做法,而在Pi最後的兩個版本故事中,筆者認為動物版本的故事是Pi對人類為中心的世界中屏除動物世界觀的批判。
其他識別: U0005-0302201513245600
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