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標題: Studies on the parasitic ability of Dirhinus giffardii against the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
作者: 董柏毅
Po-Yi Tung
關鍵字: 東方果實蠅;格氏突闊小蜂;蛹寄生蜂;寄生能力;Bactrocera dorsalis;Dirhinus giffardii;pupal parasitoid;parasitic ability
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東方果實蠅 (Bactrocera dorsalis) 為台灣危害最嚴重的經濟果樹害蟲之一,目前已遍及台灣各地,因其寄主廣泛且為國際間重要檢疫害蟲,而嚴重危害各種果樹產業的發展。格氏突闊小蜂 (Dirhinus giffardii) 屬膜翅目 (Hymenoptera)、小蜂科 (Chalcididae),為一種廣寄主性的蛹寄生蜂,本研究針對此寄生蜂對東方果實蠅的寄生效力進行室內測試,探討田間實際應用於果實蠅生物防治的可行性。在不同溫度的測試中,發現格氏突闊小蜂在 10、15、20、25、30、35℃ 等 6 種溫度環境中皆可存活,顯示其對溫度的適應能力相當強,雄、雌寄生蜂在 15℃ 時平均壽命最長,分別可達 71.7 ± 4.4、77.3 ± 3.8 日;壽命最短為 10℃ 時,分別為 25.3 ± 3.2、22.7 ± 4.8 日,且雄、雌寄生蜂分別在各定溫處理後彼此間壽命無顯著差異,但在這 6 種定溫處理情況下,只有 20、25、30℃ 的環境下可成功寄生果實蠅蛹體,於 30℃ 的處理下具有最高繁殖潛能,每一雌寄生蜂平均產卵期為 51.5 ± 1.7 日,共可成功寄生果實蠅蛹體並產生 88.3 ± 2.4 隻後代。此寄生蜂
對不同土壤深度下果實蠅蛹的寄生能力測試中,顯示能有效寄生果實蠅蛹體以覆土 1 cm 深度處理者最多,測試 24 h 後,平均每一雌寄生蜂可成功寄生果實蠅蛹體並產生 2.2 ± 0.1 隻後代,與覆土深度 2、3 cm 者有顯著差異。對不同果實蠅蛹期的寄生偏好測試中,此寄生蜂對 1 至 5 日齡果實蠅蛹體無顯著偏好,皆可有效寄生並產生後代。在遮光處理的測試中,發現此寄生蜂偏好遮光處理的果實蠅蛹體,平均每一雌寄生蜂可成功寄生果實蠅蛹體並產生 2 ± 0.1 隻後代,與未遮光處理者之 0.7 ± 0.3 隻有顯著差異。

The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most economically important pests of fruit trees throughout the whole island of Taiwan. It has impeded the development of fruit tree plantations due to its wide range of host plants and quarantine problems in international trade. This study investigated a generalist pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), against the oriental fruit fly. In laboratory tests, we evaluated the longevity and parasitic abilities of D. giffardii against the oriental fruit fly at different temperatures. The results showed that this parasitoid was highly adaptive to survive at 6 different temperatures, i.e., 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35℃. Its adult longevity was longest at 15℃ (♂71.7 ± 4.4 d, ♀77.3 ± 3.8 d) and was shortest at 10℃ (♂25.3 ± 3.2 d, ♀22.7 ± 4.8 d). There were no significant differences between male and female at all temperatures tested. However, the parasitic ability of D. giffardii females against B. dorsalis pupae exhibited only at 20, 25, and 30
℃. Its female produced the highest number of offspring at 88.3 ± 2.4 in 51.5 ± 1.7 days at 30℃. In addition, parasitic ability of D. giffardii was also examined by burying fruit fly pupae in different soil depths. The results showed that the highest level of parasitism
was found at 1 cm soil depth, producing the mean number of 2.2 ± 0.1 offspring at 24 h after testing. There were significant differences between 2 and 3 cm soil depth. The
parasitic preference of D. giffardii to different ages of B. dorsalis pupae and those pupae under shaded or un-shaded treatments was also investigated. The results showed that the parasitism rates were not significantly different among 1-to 5-day-old pupae, but the parasitoid preferred to attack pupae under shaded treatment, producing the mean
number of 2.0 ± 0.1 offspring. However, there was significant difference between shaded and un-shaded treatment.
其他識別: U0005-2805201510574100
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