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|標題:||Effect of extreme flooding on community structure and secondary production of aquatic insects in stream ecosystems
|關鍵字:||aquatic insect, extreme flood;disturbance;secondary production;stream ecosystems;水棲昆蟲;極端洪流;干擾;次級生產量;溪流生態系||引用:||葉昭憲、連惠邦、段錦浩。2002。高山溪防砂壩改善工程之實施與現況。國家公園學報 12(2): 191-203。 Allan, J. D. 2004. Landscapes and riverscapes: The influence of land use on stream ecosystems. Annu Rev Ecol Evol S 35: 257-284. Anderson, A. M., and L. C. Ferrington. 2013. Resistance and resilience of winter-emerging Chironomidae (Diptera) to a flood event: implications for Minnesota trout streams. Hydrobiologia 707: 59-71. Angradi, T. R. 1997. Hydrologic context and macroinvertebrate community response to floods in an Appalachian headwater stream. Am Midl Nat 138: 371-386. Archaimbault, V., P. Usseglio-Polatera, and J. P. Vanden Bossche. 2005. Functional differences among benthic macroinvertebrate communities in reference streams of same order in a given biogeographic area. Hydrobiologia 551: 171-182. Baird, D. J., and P. J. Van den Brink. 2007. 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Along with the global warming, there is an increased chance of intense precipitation and flooding. The sudden increase of the discharge rate would result in a usual severe impact on the stream ecology. The worst flooding in past 40 years broke out in 2005 at our study area, upper Dajia drainage basin. The aquatic insect samples were collected with specifically the Surber samples monthly for this study. Six samples were collected from each designated location from the 5 research sites, Taoshan west stream, Cijiawan stream, Gaoshan stream, and Yousheng stream, in 2003 and 2006 with 2 years interval from the extreme flood during 2005. Back in the laboratory, the insects body length was measured along with the calculation of secondary production according to the attained body length results. The results from the extreme flood indicated the dramatic drop in the numbers of aquatic insects, but failed to prove the alternation in species diversity. The influences on the secondary production of aquatic insects is strongly related to specific groups of species accordingly. Some positive influences brought by the flood were specifically toward aquatic insects which include short-cycled, habitat generalist, and streamlined or flat-sized insects. In the other hand, the negative effects were dominated mostly towards the aquatic insects with traits of clinger. However, towards the two-staged outside stream aquatic insects, the flood was proven irreverent of influence. The extreme event has less impact on the aquatic insects with resilience traits than those with resistance, causing a biological domination of flexible aquatic insects. Upon analysing the results of the research revealed the fact that extreme floods alternated the basic community structure of aquatic insects and positive influenced the secondary production of steam ecology.
全球暖化預計將增加強降雨的機會，而強降雨將造成極端的洪流，這種突增的流量往往對溪流生態系帶來巨大的衝擊。本研究地點大甲溪流域上游於2005年發生過去40年來最大之極端洪流衝擊，因此在桃山西溪、七家灣溪、高山溪及有勝溪共設5樣站，並於極端洪流前 (2003年)、極端洪流後 (2006年)，每月每站以舒伯氏水網 (Surber sampler)所採集的6個樣本之水棲昆蟲，攜回實驗室鑑定後測量體長，並計算出次級生產量。結果顯示極端洪流造成水棲昆蟲數量下降，但生物多樣性沒有影響。極端洪流對不同特徵的水棲昆蟲次級生產量有不同的影響，對短生活史、棲地廣適者及體型流線或扁平者之次級生產量為正影響，對於攀附者之次級生產量則為負影響；對至少有兩生活史階段在流水域外者之次級生產量則沒有影響。此極端事件對彈性 (resilience)特徵類群的衝擊較抗性 (resistance)特徵類群小，進而使彈性特徵類群占較大優勢。本研究結果顯示極端洪流事件會改變水棲昆蟲的群聚結構，並對溪流生態系之次級生產量為正影響。
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