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標題: The lethal efficacy of Chenopodium formosanum against Aedes aegypti larvae and the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata
作者: 廖姿雯
Zi-Wen Liao
關鍵字: Chenopodium formosanum;Aedes aegypti;Pomacea canaliculata;lethal efficacy, liquid-liquid partition;臺灣藜;福壽螺;埃及斑蚊;致死效力;液–液相分離
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This study evaluated the lethal efficacy of the Taiwan quinoa, Chenopodium formosanum, against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and the apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata. The preliminary investigations showed that the grinding solution of dried mature flower spike exhibited the highest lethal efficacy compared to different plant parts of C. formosanum, the mortalities being 32% at 10 times dilution for A. aegypti larvae and 30% at 200 times dilution for P. canaliculata. When assayed the lethal efficacy of water grinding solution and methanol extraction of its dried flower spike at different concentrations, the results showed that the LC50 values against A. aegypti larvae and apple snails were 20787 and 1037 mg/L, and 2500 and 342.3 mg/L, respectively. This result indicates that the active ingredients of C. formosanum can be extracted with methanol. Furthermore, the n-butyl alcohol soluble fraction obtained from methanol extraction using two-phase liquid-liquid partition exhibited the highest lethal efficacy against A. aegypti larvae, its LC50 value being 611.6 mg/L, while the ethyl acetate soluble fraction showed the highest lethal efficacy against apple snails with an LC50 of 202.9 mg/L. On the other hand, lethal efficacy of the water grinding solution of C. formosanum dried flower spike against apple snails was also tested at different temperatures. The results showed that the LC50 values were 2991, 3094, 1281, and 1580 mg/L at 15, 20, 25, and 30oC, respectively. The LC90 of this solution for apple snails was about 6.5 times lower at 25 - 30°C than at 15 - 20°C. After exposing the water grinding solution to sunlight for 1 - 3 days, the mortalities of 2 -3 cm shell high apple snails all remained 100%, whereas those of 1- 2 cm shell high apple snails were 70, 30, and 0%. When exposed the solution to sunlight for 4 days, the mortalities declined to 0 in both sizes of apple snails. These results demonstrated that the highest lethal efficacy of C. formosanum against apple snails occurs at higher temperatures and sufficient sunlight in fields. This botanical material possesses great potential for apple snail control.

本研究探討臺灣藜 (Chenopodium formosanum) 對埃及斑蚊 (Aedes aegypti) 三齡幼蟲和福壽螺 (Pomacea canaliculata) 二種水中有害生物的致死效力,初步測試臺灣藜植體各部位的效力,結果顯示成熟乾燥花穗水研磨液 10 倍與 200 倍稀釋液對此二種生物具較高的致死效率,分別為 32% 及 30%。將此成熟乾燥花穗進行水研磨及甲醇浸泡二種方式萃取後,再分別以不同濃度進行測試,結果對埃及斑蚊三齡幼蟲之 LC50 分別為 20787、1037 mg/L;對福壽螺之 LC50 分別為 2500、342.3 mg/L,顯示甲醇浸泡萃取方式可萃取出有效致死成分。再將甲醇萃取物進行液–液相分離,結果顯示正丁醇層萃取物對福壽螺之致死效力最佳,LC50 為202.9 mg/L;而乙酸乙酯層萃取物對埃及斑蚊幼蟲之致死效果較佳,LC50 為611.6 mg/L。在不同定溫下比較臺灣藜乾燥花穗水研磨液對福壽螺的致死效率,在 15、20、25、30°C下,LC50 分別為 2991、3094、1281、1580 mg/L,且在 25、30°C時 LC90 較 15、20°C時下降 6.5 倍;此水研磨液的持效性試驗,在溫室中經太陽曝曬 1 ~ 3 日,對 2 ~ 3 cm 福壽螺均可達 100%死亡率,但對 1 ~ 2 cm 福壽螺的死亡率則分別為 70、30、0%,連續曝曬 4 日後對二種不同大小福壽螺的死亡率均降為 0%。本研究結果顯示,臺灣藜乾燥花穗水研磨液使用於溫度較高且具充足日曬之環境,對福壽螺可達最高致死效益,具發展為生物防治資材之潛力。
其他識別: U0005-2811201416193505
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2017-08-31起公開。
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