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標題: The Growth Characteristics of the Entomopathogenic Fungus, Isaria javanica (Ascomycota: Hypocreales), and its Potential as a Biocontrol Agent for Management of the Housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus)
蟲生真菌 Isaria javanica (Ascomycota: Hypocreales)培養特性及其防治家蠅(Musca domestica (Linnaeus))之應用潛力
作者: 涂偉域
Wei-Yu Tu
關鍵字: entomopathogenic fungus;Isaria javanica;Musca domestica;biocontrol;蟲生真菌;Isaria javanica;家蠅;生物防治
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The housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscadae), is a synanthropic fly which is able to transmit various pathogens and is importantly related to the public health problem. In this study, pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus, Isaria javanica, against to housefly and its growth characteristics were conducted. The optimal medium for I. javanica growth was found to be SMAY, forming 61.8 mm colony diameter and yielding 9.4×105 conidia/mm2 that is better than on SDAY and PDA. The fungus grew best at 25oC forming 61 mm colony diameter and yielding 4.2×105 conidia/mm2. Its incubation photoperiod was also evaluated and found to be best under full light (24 h per day) forming 66.4 mm colony diameter and yielding ca. 5.9×105 conidia/mm2. The conidial suspension of I. javanica when sprayed on M. domestica at 108, 107, and 106 conidia/ml, could cause 88.3, 68.3, and 48.3% mortality, respectively. The mortalities of housefly infected with I. javanica were examined after incubating at 10-30oC, and were highest with 91.7% at 30oC, followed by 25oC with 86.7%. However, the LT50 value was 4.3 days at 30oC while it was shortened to 2.8 days at 25oC. When housefly larvae
were treated with I. javanica conidial suspension, no cadaver was found. The adults contaminated with I. javanica conidia were released into untreated populations, causing 100% mortality of male and 96.7% of female. Adult fly were sprayed with I. javanica conidial suspension at 108 conidia/ml and then incubated at high humidity for 4 to 24 h, resulting in 81.3-100% mortality. The LT50 value decreased from 5.6 days at 4 h to 2 days at 24 h. The sisal cords impregnated with I. javanica conidial suspension at 106, 107, and 108 conidia/ml resulted in the housefly mortality of 61.7, 81.7, and 100%, respectively. This study suggests that I. javanica could be a potential microbial control agent for housefly management.

家蠅(Musca domestica)廣泛分佈於世界各地,常伴隨人類活動而孳生,且可機 械性傳播多種人類和動物病原,為重要之衛生害蟲;而蟲生真菌(Isaria javanica) 為具有專一性和較化學藥劑安全之生物防治資材。本試驗測試 I. javanica 之最佳 生長條件 發現以 SMAY 培養基培養之菌落直徑可達 61.83mm 產孢量可達 9.4×105,; conidia/mm2。環境溫度 25oC 時直徑可達 61mm;產孢量達 4.2×105 conidia/mm2。 每日光照 24 小時直徑可達 66.44 mm 產孢量達 5.9×105 conidia/mm2 噴灑濃度 108、;。 107、106 conidia/ml I. javanica 孢子懸浮液時可對家蠅造成 88.3%、68.3%、48.3% 之死亡率。以 108 conidia/ml 孢子懸浮液噴灑家蠅測試不同溫度下對家蠅之效果, 發現以 30oC 時死亡率 91.7%最高,25oC 的 86.7%次之;但 25oC 時,其半致死時間 (LT50)為 2.8 天較 30oC 的 4.3 天短。此真菌對家蠅幼蟲無致病力。藉由釋放沾有 I. javanica 孢子之個體至健康之家蠅族群,可造成雄蠅 100%、雌蠅 96.7%之死亡率。 藉由調整 I. javanica 分生孢子發芽之高濕度時間至 4-24 小時,則發現 4 小時即可 造成家蠅成蟲 81.3%之死亡率,8 至 24 小時死亡率為 93.8-100%,而高濕時間 4 至 24 小時之 LT50 由 5.6 天縮短為 2 天。吸附孢子懸浮液之麻繩可使停棲其上之家蠅 染病,死亡率 61.7-100%。本試驗結果顯示 I. javanica 可感染家蠅成蟲,且能藉水 平傳播將孢子散播給其他個體;也可藉麻繩吸附孢子而侵染停棲其上之家蠅,具 有田間防治家蠅之潛力。
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