Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89105
標題: Spindle shaped leaf galls on Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Fagaceae)-the biology and taxonomy of gall midge
青剛櫟葉片梭狀癭-造癭癭蚋之生物學與分類
作者: 唐昌廸
Chang-Ti Tang
關鍵字: Cyclobalanopsis glauca;gall;gall midge;biology;life history;Dasineura;青剛櫟;蟲癭;癭蚋;生物學;生活史;Dasineura
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摘要: 
Cyclobalanopsis glauca is an extensively distributed species of Fagaceae in Taiwan. Spindle-shaped galls on the lateral veins or midribs induced by a species of Cecidomyiidae are of common occurrence in Taiwan. The taxonomy and biology of the spindle-gall inducing gall-midge species (tentatively named CGM – Cyclobalanopsis-glauca midge) have not been described. To establish the biology and taxonomy of CGM, populations of C. glauca bearing galls induced by CGM from Baoshan Township of Hsin-Chu County and on Mt. Tung-Mau in Heping Township of Taichung County were sampled. Populations of C. glauca in Wulai Township of Taipei County and Wanda Reservoir of Nantou County were used as secondary sampling sites. Life history data measured from January 2007 to May 2008 revealed that the gall midge take one year from eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults, with a single generation in a year. Adults emerged and laid eggs in March 2007, when C. glauca shot new leaves. The female laid eggs on young shoots or young leaves of the host. After emergence, the neonate larvae crawled to the upper surface of young leaves and settled on lateral veins or midribs to stimulate the leaf veins and peripheral tissues to induce galls. Each gall is one chambered with housing one CGM larva. The larvae turn into second instars in April, prolonged for about eight months, and turn into third instars in November--December. Pupation occurs in February--March of the following year, and then the emergence and oviposition of adults occurs in March coiciding with the shooting of young leaves of C. glauca. The parasitic wasps of larval stages include both endoparasites and ectoparasites. Four species of endoparasitic wasps belonging to Torymidae, Eulophidae, and Platygastridae parasitize CGM. However, adults of ectoparasitoids could not be located and their identification remains unknown for the present. The rate of parasitism maximizes March (2008) and the percentage of endoparasitic wasps was higher. Time-related development of galls and larvae is different. Morphometric data of galls indicate that the galls reach the maximal size in six days, within which the first instar larvae trun into second instars till their adult stage. Comparisons of the width of sternal spatulae of second and third instar larvae and gall volume from populations of Baoshan, Mt. Tung-Mau, Wanda Reservoir, and Wulai sites indicate that the widest sternal spatulae of second instar larvae occur in Baoshan, the intermediate widths in Mt. Tung-Mau and Wanda sites, and the narrowest occur in Wulai while the widest sternal spatulae of third isntar larvae occur in Baoshan and Mt. Tung-Mau, the intermediate width occur in Wulai, and the narrowest occur in Wanda sites. Comparisons of gall volume revealed the largest galls occur in Baoshan, the intermediate galls occur in Wuali, while the smallest galls occur in Mt. Tung-Mau and Wanda Reservoir. Further analyze whether the preference of galling position on the leaves will result in larger gall volume and revealed the larvae had preference of galling position but did not correlate with gall volume. To determine the meaning of the pre-cut exit holes third instar larvae, the emergence ratio of galls with and without exit holes in the same time were compared. The emergence ratio of galls with exit holes was 87.5% while without exit holes was 0%. The results revealed the pre-cut exit hole behavior is a sign of successful emergence of adults. Morphological examination of the third instar larvae, pupae, and adults by slide mounting specimens and SEM. The adults' characters fit to the descriptions of the genus Dasineura. Since there are no records of gall midges induce spindle-shaped galls on the leaves of C. glauca, this species treat as a new species and named Dasineura glaucae sp. nov.

青剛櫟(Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb. ex Murray) Oerst)為廣泛分布於台灣全島的殼斗科植物,其葉片側脈或中肋上常可見到一種梭狀蟲癭,由一種未被記錄描述的癭蚋所造,本文暫時稱之為CGM- Cyclobalanopsis-glauca midge。本研究旨在建立CGM的生物學與釐清其分類地位。樣本主要採自新竹縣寶山鄉與台中縣和平鄉東卯山的族群,另以台北縣烏來鄉與南投縣萬大水庫的CGM族群做為次要樣區。生活史調查自2007年1月至2008年5月止,顯示癭蚋歷經卵、幼蟲、蛹至成蟲約需一年時間,為一年一代之物種。成蟲於2007年3月份寄主抽新芽與展葉時羽化並產卵,雌蟲將卵產附於寄主嫩芽或嫩葉上,一齡幼蟲孵出後自行爬至嫩葉表面葉脈的側脈或中肋並刺激葉脈及其周圍組織,使組織向葉背增生膨大形成蟲癭,每個蟲癭為單蟲室且只含有一隻CGM幼蟲。一齡幼蟲於4月轉為二齡幼蟲,此時期發育遲緩,齡期長達約八個月,在11-12月陸續轉為三齡幼蟲,於2008年2-3月陸續化蛹,成蟲於3月寄主再次抽芽展葉時期羽化並產卵,完成一個生活史。寄生於CGM幼蟲時期的寄生蜂包括內寄生蜂與外寄生蜂,內寄生蜂共四種分屬於長尾小蜂科、釉小蜂科與廣腹細蜂科三科,而外寄生性寄生蜂部份,目前僅收集到幼蟲,尚無成蟲以供鑑定,因此分類地位未明。自2007年4月至2008年5月止,計算各月份的寄生蜂寄生比率以及不同寄生模式的變化,結果顯示寄生率於2008年的3月份達到最高峰,且以內寄生蜂的比例較高。蟲癭與幼蟲的生長發育速率並非同步,由形質測量結果顯示蟲癭在六天內發育至成熟的大小,隨後一齡幼蟲在蟲癭內轉為二齡幼蟲並發育直至成蟲。比較來自寶山、東卯山、萬大水庫與烏來的CGM二齡與三齡幼蟲胸骨寬度以及蟲癭體積,結果顯示二齡幼蟲胸骨以寶山最寬,東卯山與萬大水庫次之,烏來最窄;三齡幼蟲胸骨以寶山與東卯山為最寬,烏來次之,萬大水庫最窄;蟲癭體積以寶山地區的蟲癭體積最大,烏來次之,東卯山與萬大水庫的蟲癭體積最小。進一步分析上述四個相同地區CGM幼蟲在葉片上偏好的造癭位置是否能形成體積較大的蟲癭,結果顯示幼蟲在葉片上造癭位置雖有偏好,然而此偏好性與蟲癭體積沒有相關性。爲釐清CGM三齡幼蟲預先挖掘羽化孔之意義,同時針對預先挖掘羽化孔與未挖掘羽化孔的蟲癭羽化率進行比較,發現有羽化孔的蟲癭羽化率為87.5%,無羽化孔的蟲癭羽化率為0%,經解剖未挖掘羽化孔的蟲癭顯示幼蟲早已被寄生,或是死亡多時,顯示羽化孔的挖掘為幼蟲成功羽化為成蟲的前兆。經由玻片標本與掃描式電子顯微鏡檢查來自新竹寶山CGM的三齡幼蟲、蛹與成蟲的形態特徵,成蟲特徵符合Dasineura屬的描述。由於目前沒有相關文獻指出癭蚋在青剛櫟葉片上造梭狀蟲癭,因此將此種判斷為一新種,並命名為Dasineura glaucae sp. nov.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89105
其他識別: U0005-0707201513414900
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2017-07-16起公開。
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