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標題: Demographic Assessment and Predation Capacity of Eocanthecona furcellata Fed on Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella
以生命表評估黃斑粗喙椿象( Eocanthecona furcellata) 對斜紋夜蛾( Spodoptera litura)及小菜蛾(Plutella xylostella) 之捕食能力
作者: 葉芷君
Chih-Chun Yeh
關鍵字: Eocanthecona furcellata;Spodoptera litura;Plutella xylostella;two-sex life table;predation rate;斜紋夜蛾 (Spodoptera litura);小菜蛾 (Plutella xylostella);黃斑粗喙椿象 (Eocanthecona furcellata);兩性生命表;捕食量
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Spodoptera litura (F.) and Plutella xylostella L. are important insect pests on agricultural crops in Asian countries. With the concern of food safety and environmental protection, biological control is good to reduce pesticide application. Knowing basic information of the predaceous bug, Eocanthecona furcellata, can provide us a comprehensive understanding of its population growth potential on different preys. In this study, the performance of E. furcellata reared on the tobacco cutworm and diamondback moth was conducted in laboratory at 25 ± 1?C, 60 ± 10% RH, and a photoperiod of 12:12 (L:D). According to the age-stage, two-sex life table, the intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate, and net reproductive rate were higher on P. xylostella (0.1389 d-1, 1.1490 d-1, 292.4 offspring) than on S. litura (0.1220 d-1, 1.1298 d-1, 272.3 offspring). The mean generation time was longer on S. litura (45.8 d) than on P. xylostella (40.8 d). However, the net predation rates were 644.1 larvae and 863.1 larvae on P. xylostella and S. litura, respectively, therefore, our study suggested that E. furcellata is more devouring and has better control potential on S. litura than on P. xylostella. Additionally, for mass rearing system, using the diamondback moth as food source was a better and economical method. In greenhouse, the predation capacity of E. furcellata on S. litura was evaluated with adults or the 3rd instar nymphs at three release rates, i.e. 1, 3, 5 adults or 5, 15, 25 nymphs as low, medium and high rates, individually. Releasing either nymphs or adults at medium and high rates had significantly decreasing the abundance of S. litura larvae on the 10th day after application. The mean survival rates of released nymphs and adults among three rates were 40~85% and 75~100%; the mortality was caused by the cannibalism among nymphs or the attack by larvae of S. litura. On the view of cost and benefit, the nymphs would be the better option agents to be released, in spite of the higher predation of adults. Additionally, the flight ability of adults may make them move out of the expected controlled-area, even the pests were still there. However, this scenario would not happen in the immature stages, thus the control efficacy would be promised while releasing nymphs. We recommend that the release rate should be one adult or nymph once S. litura reaching the density of 6 larvae or 2 larvae per cabbage plant in greenhouse.

斜紋夜蛾 (Spodoptera litura(F.)) 及小菜蛾 (Plutella xylostella) 係亞洲地區之重要農業害蟲。近年來,民眾對於食品安全及環保議題十分關心,生物防治資材的應用可以減少農民對化學藥劑的依賴。本研究利用兩性生命表探討黃斑粗喙椿象 (Eocanthecona furcellata(Wolff)) 在斜紋夜蛾及小菜蛾兩種害蟲上的生長表現,以利將來使用於綜合害蟲防治管理。實驗在25 ± 1?C,60 ± 10% RH,及光週期12L:12D的生長箱內進行。根據實驗結果,黃斑粗喙椿象的內在增值率、終極增長率及淨增值率在小菜蛾 (0.1389 d-1、1.1490 d-1、 292.4 offspring) 的族群成長率比斜紋夜蛾 (0.1220 d-1、1.1298 d-1、272.3 offspring) 較好。在斜紋夜蛾及小菜蛾上的平均世代時間分別為40.8及45.8天。在淨捕食量部分分別為644.1 隻小菜蛾及863.1隻斜紋夜蛾幼蟲。因此,根據我們的實驗結果可以推測,黃斑粗喙椿象捕食斜紋夜蛾幼蟲的數量多,在生物防治上具有較佳的防治潛能。在飼養黃斑粗喙椿象方面,則以小菜蛾的成本較為低廉。有了前述的基本資訊後,本論文在溫室進行黃斑粗喙椿象捕食斜紋夜蛾的試驗,以探討適合的釋放天敵密度。實驗分為釋放成蟲及若蟲兩種,釋放密度有三種,低密度、中密度及高密度,分別為1、3、5隻成蟲及5、15、25隻若蟲。結果顯示,釋放成蟲及若蟲兩者後,在抑制斜紋夜蛾族群間並無顯著差異。在考慮飼養成本及成蟲具有飛行能力的條件下,田間施用此天敵時以釋放若蟲為佳。根據本溫室實驗結果,當發現6隻或2隻斜紋夜盜幼蟲在一棵甘藍植株上時,釋放一隻成蟲或若蟲即可以達到防治效果。
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