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標題: 森林遊樂區遊憩承載量模式之建構─服務導向之觀點
The development of the model of recreational carrying capacity for forest recreation area: A service oriented perspective
作者: Hsien-Chieh Chou
關鍵字: 遊憩承載量;結構方程模式;社會承載量;設施承載量;服務承載量;Recreational Carrying Capacity (RCC);Structural Equation Modeling (SEM);Social Carrying Capacity;Facility Carrying Capacity;Service Carrying Capacity
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Recreational carrying capacity (RCC) can be defined as the level of use beyond which impacts exceed acceptable levels specified by evaluative standards (Shelby & Heberlein, 1984). Accordingly, they had defined four different kinds of carrying capacity: ecological, physical, facility, and social. Because the concept of RCC is very broad, we even couldn't use 'number' to define the best RCC. Lots of scholars had argued and challenge the concept of RCC. Though there are a lot of researches on the topic of RCC, it still has difficulties in practical applications. The concept of 'service carrying capacity' has been found in pilot study of this research, and it might be an important factor affecting the evaluation of RCC.

In this study, we try to use structural equation modeling (SEM) to develop the model of social carrying capacity, facility carrying capacity and service carrying capacity and build the model of RCC in different types of forest recreation areas (mass tourism, natural experience, middle ecological and deep ecological). It is expected that the study can find a modified RCC concept which are easy to be used on evaluating RCC of forest recreation area for forest district office.

The results showed that service carrying capacity can predict social carrying capacity and facility carrying capacity in three types of forest recreation area (mass tourism, natural experience and middle ecological). In other words, increasing service carrying capacity could improve the feeling of RCC in forest recreation areas, but the same concept can't be used in deep ecological forest recreation area. Because of the characteristics of the type of deep ecological forest recreation area, the emphasis of RCC concept in deep ecological forest recreation area should be considered more on ecological and physical carrying capacity. Managers of forest recreation areas should escape from 'numbers calculator' which is the myth of RCC. They should consider that how to provide the best service carrying capacity about 'information', 'environment' and 'service'. The result of this research could provide the managers of forest recreation areas where have more visitors or have higher use level to establish the management methods of RCC.

Shelby 與 Heberlein(1984)將遊憩承載量定義為:「一種使用水準,當超過了這個水準時,各衝擊參數受影響之程度,便超越評估標準所能接受的程度」。並提出四種遊憩承載量:生態承載量(ecological carrying capacity)、實質承載量(physical carrying capacity)、設施承載量(facility carrying capacity)、社會承載量(social carrying capacity)。遊憩承載量概念牽涉廣泛,有時並無法單單就「量」來定義最佳遊憩承載,多數學者曾針對遊憩承載量之概念提出了質疑與批判,因此即便遊憩承載量的相關學術研究成果眾多,然在實務應用上卻仍困難重重。為瞭解實際應用問題,本研究先透過先驅研究發現「服務承載量」的概念似乎是影響遊憩承載量的潛在因子。

本研究嘗試運用結構方程模式(structural equation modeling, SEM)構築「社會承載量」、「設施承載量」及「服務承載量」三個概念的森林遊樂區遊憩承載量模式,以四種不同類型的森林遊樂區(大眾旅遊型、自然體驗型、中間生態型、深度生態型)作為研究場域,期望運用經營管理單位較容易操作、控制的概念來反映各類型森林遊樂區的遊憩承載量,以適度地進行遊客管理,減少遊憩品質下降及遊客抱怨的情形產生。

研究結果發現,除了深度生態型的森林遊樂區之外,其他三類(大眾旅遊型、自然體驗型、中間生態型)森林遊樂區的服務承載量均能有效反映及預測其社會承載量與設施承載量。亦即若一個森林遊樂區強化其服務承載量,將可改善遊客對於遊憩承載量之不良感受;然而若將此模式應用於深度生態型森林遊樂區則無法有效反映,原因在於深度生態型森林遊樂區在遊憩承載量的考量上更應注重的是生態與實質承載量,而非只是設施、社會承載量。此外,「服務」亦非是一個以深度生態為經營管理目標之森林遊樂區需特別著重的部分。從本研究所建構的森林遊樂區遊憩承載量模式可以看出,森林遊樂區應跳脫傳統在遊憩承載量上「量」的迷思,而應以如何提供更高強度的「資訊」 「環境」與「服務」所反映之「服、務承載量」進行思考。此結果可提供遊客量較密集、開發程度較高之森林遊樂區經營管理單位參考,運用較容易操作與反映遊憩承載量的向度,進行森林遊樂區整體的遊憩承載量管理作為。
其他識別: U0005-2204201516510700
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-05-11起公開。
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