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Lenticel Damage Induced by Monopotassium Phosphate in Mango (Mangifera indica cv. 'Irwin') Fruits
|關鍵字:||芒果果實;皮孔傷害;病害;磷酸二氫鉀;AVG;乙烯生合成;mango fruit;lenticel damage;disease;KH2PO4;AVG;ethylene biosynthesis||引用:||Abeles, F.B., P.W. Morgan, and Jr.ME. Saltveit. 1992. Ethylene in Plant Biology. 2nd edition. San Diego: Academic Press. Abel, S., M.D. Nguyen, W. Chow, and A. Theologis. 1995. ASC4, a primary indole acetic acid-responsive gene encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-l-carboxylate synthase in Arabidopsis thaliana. J. Biol. Chem. 270:19093-190939. Adam, D.O. and S.F. Yang. 1979. Ethylene biosynthesis: identification of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to ethylene. PNAS, USA. 76(1):170-174. Aharoni, N. and M. Lieberman. 1979. Ethylene as a regulator of senescence in tobacco leaf discs. Plant Physiol. 64:801-804. Alexander, L. and D. Grierson. 2002. Ethylene biosynthesis and action in tomato: a model for climacteric fruit ripening. J. Exp. Bot. 53(317):2039-2055. Angasu, O.N., O.G. Dessalgne, and T.N. Tadesse. 2014. 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The darkening of tissues surrounding lenticels or lenticel damage on the skin of mango fruits has become one of the serious problems, due to it is not only affect fruit quality and appearance, but also gives an undesirable impression for the consumer. Monopotassium phosphate (KH2PO4) was often used to promote flowering and improve fruit quality. Therefore, the application of KH2PO4 during fruit growth and development may correlate with lenticel damage on the fruit skin. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of KH2PO4 on ethylene biosynthesis in both leaf and peel discs, and the correlation between ethylene and the lenticel damage on the fruit skin.
In the leaf and peel discs experiments, KH2PO4 could induce ethylene production in leaves under light condition rather than dark condition. The increasing of ethylene production in leaves showed positive correlation with KH2PO4 concentrations and the duration of treatments. While pH solutions did not affect the ethylene production in leaves. Comparisons of phosphorus and potassium (KCl, KOH, KH2PO4, NaH2PO4 and H3PO4) solutions in leaves and peels showed that phosphorus (KH2PO4, NaH2PO4 and H3PO4) solutions stimulated ethylene biosynthesis in both of leaves and peels, whereas potassium had no effects on ethylene biosynthesis. Moreover, organophosphorus pesticides also induced ethylene synthesis in both leaves and peels.
In mango fruit experiments, the application of KH2PO4 with/without AVG for 3 times during fruit growth and development can improve fruit quality, including total soluble solids, titratable acidity, fruit firmness, and peel color but not for fruit size. Fruit ethylene biosynthesis were significantly higher when KH2PO4 was applied alone. The accumulation of total phenolic compounds was significantly higher in both of KH2PO4 with/without AVG compared to the control fruit. Lenticel damage was more severe when KH2PO4 was applied alone, while the disease was observed after fruit ripening (at 30°C 3 days and 30°C 3 days + 25°C 5 days). However, these results can demonstrate that high concentration of KH2PO4 induced lenticel damage on the fruit skin and may act independently ethylene biosynthesis. Moreover, the increasing of lenticel damage, can cause the fruits more susceptible to pathogen infection.
For KH2PO4 dipping treatment with/without 1-MCP after harvest showed that KH2PO4 was correlated with ethylene biosynthesis and also induced lenticel damage on the fruit skin, while 1-MCP+KH2PO4 alleviated lenticel damage. However, the slight damage of lenticel had no effects on the visual appearance and can be accepted by the consumers.
In the experiment of pre-harvest ethylene treatment on mango fruit, the ethylene treatment significantly induced faster and more uniform fruit softening compared with control fruit. Total phenolic compounds, ethylene production, and ACO activity were significantly higher in the ethylene treated-fruit than the control fruit. However, the exposure of pre-harvest ethylene treatment did not induce the lenticel damage on fruit skin, it was only stimulated the ripening of mature green mango fruit.
This study indicated that the phosphorus induced ethylene biosynthesis in leaves and peels of mango fruits. KH2PO4 increased lenticel damage in the mango fruit and this is, however, independent to ethylene biosynthesis.
其次於果實成長期間施用有/無添加AVG (aminoethoxyvinylglycine) 之磷酸二氫鉀，皆可提升果實品質，如全可溶性糖、可滴定酸、果實硬度和果皮色澤的提升，對於提升果實則無效果。無AVG磷酸二氫鉀處理組乙烯生合成量顯著較高，有/無AVG之磷酸二氫鉀兩個處理相較於對照組累積了更多的總酚類化合物。皮孔傷害情形在僅處理磷酸二氫鉀組別特別嚴重，且在果實後熟後發生病害(30°C 3天和30°C 3天+ 25°C 5天)，結果顯示，過高的濃度會導致果實皮孔傷害，且施用時能促進乙烯產生且造成病害發生，然而乙烯作用和皮孔傷害可能無關。
第三階段試驗在芒果採收後1-MCP (1-methylcyclopropane) 處理後再浸泡之磷酸二氫鉀，結果顯示磷酸二氫鉀不僅與乙烯作用有關，同時導致果實皮孔受傷並發生病害，而處理1-MCP則能減少皮孔傷害。輕微的皮孔傷害對於果實外觀沒有影響，且消費者也能夠接受。
為證明芒果皮孔受損與乙烯之直接關聯性，於果實採前處理乙烯，相較於對照組明顯引起快速且一致的果實軟化，且總酚類化合物、乙烯生成和ACO (ACC oxidase) 活性顯著較高，更不會對果實皮孔造成傷害，僅促進芒果果實後熟。
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