Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: '高雄11號'、'金桃'和'中葉' 台灣棗外銷貯運技術之改進
Improvement of Handling Techniques for Export of 'Kaohsiung No.11', 'Jin-Tao', and 'Zhong-Yue' Taiwan Jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) Fruits
作者: Buttree Jaruthanaset
關鍵字: 呼吸率;乙烯生成;比重;成熟度;聚乙烯袋;舒果網;水冷處理;採收日期;模擬;貯架壽命;寒害;硬度;總可溶性固形物;台灣印度棗;respiration rate;ethylene production;specific gravity;maturity;polyethylene bags;foam nets;hyhrocooling;harvest dat;simulate;shelf life;chilling injury;firmness;total soluble solids;Indian jujube in Taiwan
引用: Abbas, M. F. 1997. Jujube, in Postharvest Physiology and Storage of Tropical and Sub-tropical Fruits, ed. by Mitra SK. CAB International, London. pp. 405–415. Abbas, M. F. and B. S. Fandi. 2002. Respiration rate, ethylene production and biochemical changes during fruit development and maturation of jujujbe (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.). J. Sci. Food Agric. 82: 1472-1476. Anuradha, S., B. Kumar, and S. Siddiqui. 1997. Determination of maturity of ber cv. Umran. Annals of Biology. 13: 267–269. Azam-Ali, S., E. Bonkoungou, C. Bowe, C. deKock, A. Godara, and J. T. Williams. 2006. Fruits for the Future. 2. Revised edition. Ber and other jujube. : An Overview. Harvest, post-harvest handling and processing, Revised edition. International center for Underutilised Crops, Southampton, UK. Bal, J. S. 1981. A note on sugars and amino acids in ripe ber. Progressive Hort. 13: 41– 42. Bal, J. S. 1982. A study on biochemical changes during room and refrigerator storage of ber. Progressive Hort. 14: 158–161. Balbontin, C., H. Ayala, R. M. Bastias, G. Tapia, M. Ellena, C. Torres. J. A. Yuri. J. Q. Garcia. J. C. Rios, and H. Silva. 2013. Cracking in sweet cherries: A comprehensive review from a physiological, molecular, and genomic perspective. Chilean J. Agri. Res. 73: 66–72. Bangarth, F. 1979. Calcium-related physiological disorders of plants. Ann. Rev.Phytopathol. 17: 97-122. Benkeblia, N. 2009. Postharvest Technol. Hort. Crops. 2: 25-47. Ben-Yehoshua, S., I. Kobiler, and B. Shapiro, 1979. Some physiological effects of delaying deterioration of citrus fruits by individual seal packaging in high density polyethylene film. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 104: 868-872. Bhatia, S. K. and O. P. Gupta. 1985. Chemical changes during development and ripening of ber fruits. Punjab Hort. J. 24: 70–74. Burns, J. K. 2004. Mandarin (Tangerine). In: Gross, K.C., C.Y. Wang, and M. Saltveit. (eds.).The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery stocks. USDA Agricultural Handbook Number 66. pp. 419-434. Chaudhary, P. R., G.K. Jayaprakasha, R. Porat, and B. S. Patil. 2014. Low temperature conditioning reduces chilling injury while maintaining quality and certain bioactive compounds of 'Star Ruby' grapefruit. Food Chem. 153: 243-249. Christensen, J. V. 1996. Rain-induced cracking of sweet cherries: Its causes and prevention. In A. D. Webster & N. E. Looney (Eds.), Cherries: Crop physiology, production and uses. London, UK: CAB International. pp. 297–327. Collings, J. K. and P. Perkings-Veazie. 1993. Postharvest changes in strawberry fruits stored under simulated retail display conditions. J. Food. Qual. 16: 133-143. Council of Agriculture: Executive Yuan R.O.C. (Taiwan). 2015. Jujube (online). Available: 30th, 2015). Demarty, M., C. Morvan, and M. Thellier. 1984. Calcium and the cell wall. Plant, Cell and Environ. 7: 441-448. Ding, C. K., K. Chachin, Y. Ueda, Y. Imahori, and C. Y. Wang. 2002. Modified atmosphere packaging maintains postharvest quality of loquat fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 24: 341-348. Elhadi, M. Y. 2011. Postharvest biology and technology of tropical and subtropical fruits. Volume 3: Cocona to mango: Durian (Durio zibethinus Merr.) TJI Digital. Padstow, Cornwall, UK. pp. 80-106. Ferguson, I.B. 1984. Calcium in plant senescence and fruit ripening. Plant Cell Environ. 7: 477-489. Ferreira, M. D., J. K. Breche, S. A. Sargent and J. J. Aracena. 1994. Physiological responses of strawberry to film wrapping and precooling methods. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 107: 265-269. Field, R. J. 1981. The role of low temperature on ethylene production by leaf tissue of Phaseolus vulgaris, L. Ann Bot. 47:215–219. Grierson, W. 1974. Chilling injury in tropical and subtropical fruits. Effect of harvest date, degreening, delayed storage and peel color on chilling injury of grapefruit. Proceedings of the Tropical Region, American Society for Horticultural Science. 18: 66–73. Hardenburg, R. E., A. E. Watada, and C. Y. Wang. 1986. The Commercial Storage of Fruits, Vegetables, and Florist and Nursery Stocks (USDA Handbook 66). USDA, Washington, DC. . [no pagination]. Hatton, T. T. and R. H. Cubbedge. 1983. Preferred temperature for pre-storage conditioning of 'Marsh' grapefruit to prevent chilling injury at low temperatures. Hort. Sci. 18(5): 721–722. Hussain, I., M. Asif, M. Ahmad, M. Khan, and I. Shakir, 2004. Effect of Uni-packaging on the postharvest behavior of citrus fruits in NWFP. Pak. J. Nutr. 3(6): 336-339. Jain, R. K. and S. D. Chitkara. 1980. Effect of different packings in transportation on quality of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit. Annals of Arid Zone 19: 289–291. Jain, R. K., S. D. Chitkara, and K. Singh. 1979. Effect of various post-harvest treatments on storage of Umran cultivar of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.). Haryana J. Hort. Sci. 8: 181–185. Jat, L., S. Pareek, and K. B. Shukla. 2013. Physiology responses of Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruit to storage temperature under modified atmosphere packaging. J. Sci. Food Agric. 93: 1940-1944. Jat, L., S. Pareek, and R. A. Kaushilk. 2012. Colour changes in Indian jujube fruit under modified atmosphere packaging. Curr. Opin. Agric. 1: 19-23. Jawanda, J. S., J. S. Bal, J. S. Josan, and S. S. Mann. 1980. Studies on the storage of ber fruits. In Room temperature. Punjab Hort. J. 20: 56–61. Jawanda. J. S., J. S. Bal, J. S. Josan, and S. S. Mann. 1980. Studies on the storage of ber fruits II. Cool temperature. Punjab Hort. J. 20: 171–178. Jiang, Y. and D. C. Joyce. 2000. Effects of 1-methylcyclopropene alone and in combination with polyethylene bags on the postharvest life of mango fruit. Ann. Appl. Biol. 137: 321-327. Jones, W. W. 2002. Respiration and chemical changes of papaya fruit in relation to temperature. Acta Hort. 77: 460-466. Joyce, D. C. and G. I. Johnson. 1999. Prospects for exploitation of natural disease resistance in harvested horticultural crops. Postharvest News and Information 10: 45-48. Joyce, D. C. and B. Patterson. 1994. Postharvest water relations in horticultural crops: Principles and problems. ACIAR Proceedings. 50: 228-238. Kader, A. A. 2002. Postharvest Biology and Technology: An Overview. Postharvest Technology of Horticulture Crops, 3rd edition. University of California, United States of America. pp. 39-47. Kadzere, I., L. Hove, T. Gatsi, M. T. Masarirambi, L. Tapfumaneyi, E. Maforimbo, I. Magumise, J. Sadi, and P. R. Makaya. 2001. Post-harvest fruit handling practices and traditional processing of indigenous fruits in Zimbabwe. ICRAF Annual Report, Harare, Zimbabwe. pp. 24-39. Kato, K. 1997. Electrical Density Sorting and Estimation of Soluble Solids Content of Watermelon. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 67: 161-170. Katy, A. C., T. K. McGhie, A. White, and A. B. Woolf. 2004. Skin color and pigment changes during ripening of 'Hass' avocado fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 31: 287–294. Kawada, K. and L.G. Albrigo. 1979. Effect of film packaging in carton air filters and storage temperature on the quality of Florida grapefruit. Procceding Flarida State Hort. Sci. 92: 209-212. Kays, S. J. 1997. Postharvest Physiology of Perishable Plant Products. Athens: Exon Press. pp. 532. Kirkby. E.A. and D.J. Pilbeaam. 1984. Calcium as a plant nutrient. Plant cell Environ. 7: 397-405. Koro, K. 1997. Electrical Density Sorting and Estimation of Soluble Solids Content of Watermelon. J. Agr. Eng. Res. 67: 161- 170. Krezdorn, A. 1978. Minimum quality (maturity) standards: regulatory bodies and terminology. Fla. Grower and Rancher 71: 19-20. Kudachikar, V. B., K. V. R. Ramana, and W. E. Eiperson. 2000. Pre- and post-harvest factors influencing the shelf life of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) – a review. Indian Food Packer. 81-90. Lafuente, M. T., L. Zacarias, M. A. Martínez-Tellez, M. T. Sanchez-Ballesta, and A. Granell. 2003. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and ethylene in relation to chilling injury as affected by fruit age in citrus. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 29: 308–317. Lal, G., M. S. Fageria, N. K. Gupta, R. S. Dhaka, and S. K. Khandelwal. 2002. Shelf-life and quality of ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) fruits after postharvest water dipping treatments and storage. J. Hortic. Sci. Biotech. 77: 576–579. Leshem, Y. Y., A. H. Halevy, and C. Frenkel. 1986. Process and control of plant senescence: Fruit ripening. Elsevier science publishing company INC. U.S.A. pp. 171- 177. Lester, G.E. and M.A. Grusak. 2004. Field application of chelated calcium: postharvest effects on cantaloupe and honeydew fruit quality. Hort. Technol. 14: 29-38. Liang, Y. S., O. Wongmetha, P. S. Wu, and L. S. Ke. 2013. Influence of hydrocooling on browning and quality of litchi cultivar Feizixiao during storage. Int. J. Refrigeration. 36: 1173-1179. Lichter, A., O. Dvir, E. Fallik, S. Cohen, R. Golan, Z. Shemer, and M. Sagi. 2002. Cracking of cherry tomatoes in solution. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 26: 305– 312. Lyons, J. M. (1973) Chilling injury in plants. Ann Rev Plant Physiol. 24: 445–466. McGlasson, W. B., K. J. Scott, and J. D. B. Mendoza 1979. The refrigerated storage of tropical and subtropical products. Int. J. Refrig. 2: 199–206. Meang, X., J. Han, Q. Wang, and S. Tian. 2009. Changes in physiology and quality of peach fruits treated by methyl jasmonate under low temperature stress. Food Chem. 114: 1028-1035. Meel, O. P., A. S. Chharia, R. Kumar, and M. S. Joon. 1991. Physico-chemical changes in the fruit of Sandhura Narnaul ber (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) during growth and development. Haryana J. Hort. Sci. 20: 65–72. Mia, B. 2003. Studies on postharvest behaviour of papaya. M.S. Thesis, Dept. of Hort. BAU, Mymensingh. pp. 40-96. Monthira, S. 1982. Effect of low temperature and packaging material on storage life of Bombay jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.). Bangkok, Thailand. Naik, K. R. and A. K. Rokhade. 1996. Effect of polyethylene packaging on the storage of different ber cultivars. Karnataka J. Agric. Sci. 9: 85–88. Panwar, J. K. 1981. Postharvest physiology and storage behaviour of ber fruit (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) in relation to temperature and various treatments. Thesis Abstracts, Haryana Agricultural University. Hisar 7: 64–65. Pareek, O. P. and O. P. Gupta. 1988. Packaging of ber, datepalm and phalsa. In: A souvenir on packaging of fruits and vegetables in India. Agric. Hort. Society. Hyderabad. India. 91–103. Pareek, O. P., R. Bhargava, V. Nath, and B. B. Vashishtha. 1999. Changes in metabolite composition in postharvest treated ber fruits under ambient and cool storage environment. 4th Agricultural Science Congress. Jaipur. India. February 212: 21–24. Pareek, S. 2013. Nutritional composition of jujube fruit. J. Food Agric. 25: 463-470. Pareek, S., L. Kitinoja, R. A. Kaushik, and R. Paliwal. 2009. Postharvest physiology and storage of ber. Stewart Postharvest Review. 5(5): 1-10. Paull, R. E. 1999. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on fresh commodity quality. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 15: 263-277. Peleg, K. and S. Hinga. 1986. Simulation of Vibration Damage Introduce Transportation. Transa. ASAE. 29(2): 633–641. Purvis, A. C. 1983. Effect of film thickness and storage temperature on water loss and internal quality of seal-packaged grapefruit. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 108: 562- 566. Ramin, A. A. and D. Khoshbakhat. 2008. Effect of Microperforated Polyethylene Bags and Temperatures on the Storage Quality of Acid Lime Fruits. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci. 3(4): 590-594. Roa, R. D., J. H.di Pendima and D. R. Guemes. 1997. The technical feasibility of export of fresh strawberries to Germany by air. Revista del Institute de Technologia de Alimentos. 2: 79-88. Rodov, V., B. Horev, Y. Vinokur, A. Copel, Y. Aharoni and N. Aharoni, 2002. Modifiedatmosphere packaging improves keeping quality of Charentais type melon. Hort. Science. 37: 950-953. Saltveit, M. E. 2000. Discovery of chilling injury, in Discoveries in Plant Biology, ed. by Kung SD and Yang SF. World Scientific Publishing, Singapore. pp. 423– 448. Salvador, A., T. Sanz, and S. M. Fiszman. 2007. Changes in color and texture and their relationship with eating quality during storage of different dessert bananas. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 43 (3): 319-325. Sandhbhor, D. R., U. T. Desai, and P. N. Kale. 1992. Effect of gibberellin, cytokinin and polyethylene packing on market qualities of ber fruits. J. Maharashtra Agric. Universities. 17: 148–149. Saran, P. L., A. K. Godara, I. S. Yadav, S. K. Sehrawat and G. Lal. 2006. Morphological diversity among Indian jujube (Ziziphus mauritiana Lamk.) genotype collected at Hisar, India. J. Food. Agric. Environ. 4 (2). Sargent, S. A., M. T. Talbot, and J. K. Brecht. 1998. Evaluation precooling methods for vegetable packinghouse operations. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 101: 175- 182. Sevillano. L., M. S. Ballesta, F. Romojaro, and F. B. Flores. 2009. Physiological, hormonal and molecular mechanisms regulating chilling injury in horticultural species. Postharvest technologies applied to reduce its impact. J. Sci. Food Agric. 89: 555-573. Seymour, G. B., J. Tayor, and A. Tuker. 1993.Biochemistry of fruit ripening. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 454. Shao, Z. P., T. J. Ying, and Y. G. Wang. 2002. Effects of cold shock on postharvest physiology of tomato. J. Nanjing Agric. Univ. 25: 97–100. Singh, S. P., Z. Singh, and E. E. Swinny. 2009. Postharvest nitric oxide fumigation delays fruit ripening and alleviates chilling injury during cold storage of Japanese plums (Prunus salicina Lindell). Postharvest Biol. Technol. 53: 101– 108. Sommer N. 1992. Principles of disease suppression by handling practices. Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops, Ed. A Kader. Publication 3311, University of California, Oakland, USA. pp. 109-116. Tandom, D. K., B. P. Singh, and S. K. Kalra. 1989. Storage behaviour of specific gravity graded guava fruits. Sci. Hortic.41: 35–41. Tanner, D. and N. Smale. 2005, Stewart Postharvest Rev. 1: 1.1. Thompson, J. F., F. G. Mitchell, and R. F. Kasmire. 2002. Cooling horticultural commodities. In: Kader, A. A. (ed.), Postharvest Technology of Horticultural Crops; Third edition, publication number 3311. Regents of the University of California, Division of Agricultural and Natural Resources, Oakland, CA. pp. 97-112. Tietel, Z., E. Lewinsohn, E. Fallik, and R. Porat. 2012. Importance of storage temperatures in maintaining flavor and quality of mandarins. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 64: 175-182. Wang, C. Y. 1994. Chilling injury of tropical horticultural commodities. Hort. Sci. 29(9), 986–988. Wang, C. Y. 1989. Relation of chilling stress to ethylene production, in Low Temperature Stress Physiology in Crops, ed. by Li PH. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. pp. 177–189. Wang, C. Y. 1990. Overview on Chilling Injury of Horticulture Crops. Chilling Injury of Horticultural Crops. 1st edition. CRC Press, United States of America. 4-14. Wang, H., Z. Zhang, L. Xu, X. Huang, and X. Pang. 2012. The effect of delay between heat treatment and cold storage on alleviation of chilling injury in banana fruit. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92: 2624-2629. Wang, Y. and L. E. Long. 2015. Physiological and biochemical changes relating to postharvest splitting of sweet cherries affected by calcium application in hydrocooling water. Food Chem. 181: 241-247. Wang, Y. W. and D. O. Adams. 1980. Ethylene production by chilled cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.). Plant Physiol. 66: 841–843. Wang, Y., X. Xie, and L. E. Long. 2014. The effect of postharvest calcium application in hydrocooling water on tissue calcium content, biochemical changes, and quality attributes of sweet cherry fruit. Food Chem. 160: 22-30. Will, R., B. McGlasson., D. Graham, and D. Joyce. 1990. Physiological disorders. Postharvest: An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals, 3rd edition. New South Wales University, Australia. pp. 130-135. Wills, R., B. McGlasson, D. Graham, and D. Joyce. 1998. Postharvest: An Introduction to the Physiology & Handling of Fruit, Vegetables & Ornamentals, 4th Ed. Wallingford: CAB International. pp. 262 WILLS, R., B. McGlasson, D. Graham, and D. Joyce. 1998. Postharvest: An introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit, vegetables, and ornamentals. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. pp. 54-59. Woolf, A. B., K. A. Cox, A. White, and I. B. Ferguson. 2003. Low temperature conditioning treatments reduce external chilling injury of 'Hass' avocados. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 28(1): 113–122. Yang, Q., Z. Zhang, J. Rao, Y. Wang, Z. Sun, Q. Ma, and X. Dong. 2013. Low- temperature conditioning induces chilling tolerance in 'Hayward' kiwifruit by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activity and regulation en-dogenous hormones levels. J. Sci. Food. Agric. 93: 3691-3699. Yusof, S. and M. Suhaila. 1987. Physicochemical changes in guava (Psidium guajava L.) during development and maturation. J. Sci. Food Agric. 38: 31–59. Zaharah, S. S. and Z. Singh. 2011. Postharvest nitric oxide fumigation alleviates chilling injury, delays fruit ripening and maintains quality in cold stored 'Kensington Pride' mango. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 60: 202–210. Zhang, B., W. P. Xi, W. W. Wei, J. Shen, I. Ferguson, and K. Chen. 2011. Changes in aroma-related volatiles and gene expression during low temperature storage and subsequent shelf life of peach fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 60: 7-16. Zhang, H., S. Yang., D. C. Joyce., Y. Jiang., H. Qu., and X. Duan. 2010. Physiology and quality response of harvest banana fruit to cold shock. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 55: 154-159. Zhang, M. 2000. Status and development of processing technology of fruit and vegetable in China. Food Mach 76: 4-6 Zhong Q and W. Xia. 2007 Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene and/or chitosan coating treatment on storage life and quality maintenance of Indian jujube fruit. LWT- Food Sci. Technol. 40: 404–411.
Taiwan jujube fruit is very perishable and it has short storage life under room temperature. The aim of this study is to investigate what essential factors influence changes in quality attributesof cv. 'Kaohsiung No. 11', 'Jin-Tao' and 'Zhong-Yue' (Z. mauritiana Lamk.) Taiwan jujube fruits. Those essential factors to be investigated are as follows: low temperature, precooling treatment, specific gravity, packaging, storage temperature and harvest date.
In maturity stage 2 (commercial stage) jujube fruit cv. 'Jin-Tao' had the highest respiration rate and ethylene production on day 3 under storage of 25°C (119.0 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1 and 24.4 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1 respectively), and those which were stored at 10°C and at 5°C could be kept in cold storage until day 6. Meanwhile fruit cultivar 'Kaohsiung No.11' had the highest respiration rate and ethylene production on day 5 under storage of 25°C (13.46 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1 and 0.96 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1 respectively), and 'Zhong-Yue' had the highest respiration rate and ethylene production on day 3 under storage of 25°C (24.96 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1 and 2.33 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1 respectively), then both of them could maintain their shelf-life until day 13 under storage of 10°C and 5°C.
Specific gravity of jujube fruits was investigated by using pure water. The percentages of floating fruits, on the distilled water, of cv. 'Kaohsiung No. 11', 'Jin-Tao' and 'Zhong-Yue' with specific gravity < 1 were 99%, 98.4% and 90% respectively. There was no correlation among specific gravity total soluble solids and fruit firmness. Neither was total soluble solids and peel color.
In the packaging experiment, by using polyethylene bags (PE bags) or foam nets for packing jujube fruits of all cultivars, regardless of storage at 5°C or 1°C, their quality was significantly affected, especially with PE bags. During storage, fruits which were packed in foam nets were striking in weight loss.
Under precooling or no precooling condition, field heat of fruits cv. 'Zhong-Yue' could be reduced to 1°C, but that of cv. 'Jin-Tao' and 'Kaohsiung No.11' could be done to the only minimum temperature of 5°C. All fruit cultivars could be stored until day 21, afterward they were of very poor quality. So at day 21 it was quite clear that fruits which were stored at 1o C from the start with either precooling or no precooling treatment had the lowest percentage of weight loss and could maintain their peel color, fruit firmness and total soluble solids.
As for storage temperature under simulated shelf-life, the simulated shelf-life at 3°C yielded the best storage result of fruits cultivar 'Kaohsiung No. 11'. They maintained fruit quality and suffered the least chilling injury symptoms. Meanwhile fruits cultivar 'Jin-Tao' under simulated shelf-life at 3°C, 5°C, 10°C, and 15°C were found that there was no much difference in fruit quality and no chilling injury symptoms were apparent.
In addition, there was no much difference in fruit quality between fruits which were harvested in the different period of time. Fruits cultivar 'Kaohsiung No. 11' could be stored until day 21, afterward they suffered severe chilling injury symptoms and their best harvest time was March 6th, 2015. Meanwhile best harvest time of fruits cultivar 'Jin-Tao' was February 13th, 2015 and they could maintain their quality until the end of storage.
These results show that PE bags under low temperature conditioning can maintain the quality of fruit during storage and transportation. So it is possible to be another management model for commerce.

台灣棗在室溫下具有容易腐爛及櫥架壽命較短的特性。本研究目的為調查影響台灣棗(Z. mauritiana Lamk. cv.'高雄11號'、'金桃'和'中葉')果實品質的重要因素,例如:低溫、比重、包裝材質、預冷處理、貯藏溫度及採收時間。
第二階段成熟度(商業成熟度)之'金桃'棗子眝藏在250C3天具有最高的呼吸率(119.0 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1)以及乙烯高峰(24.4 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1)。而且,當'高雄11號' 棗子眝藏在10°C和5°C有6天儲架壽命。'高雄11號' 棗子 在250C5天有最高的呼吸率(13.46 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1)以及乙烯高峰(0.96 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1)而'中葉' 棗子在250C3天產生最高的呼吸率(24.96 ml CO2 kg-1 hr-1)以及乙烯高峰(2.33 μl C2H4 kg-1 hr-1)。除此以外,'高雄11號'和'中葉' 棗子眝藏在10°C和5°C下有13天眝架壽命。比重調查結果顯示'高雄11號'、'金桃'及'中葉'果實比重小於1的比例分別為99%、98.4%和90%,而果實比重與可溶性固形物、硬度之間無顯著相關,果皮顏色與可溶性固形物間亦無明顯關係。不同包裝材質以打孔PE袋處理的果實貯藏品質較佳,其失重率明顯低於疏果網包裝,而台灣棗經1℃及5℃低溫貯藏,兩溫度處理在貯藏品質上並無明顯差異。台灣棗預冷試驗結果顯示,'中葉'果實經預冷後可降至1℃,而'金桃'和'高雄11號'僅能降至5℃。在1℃貯藏期間,有預冷及無預冷處理果實均能維持較佳的果皮顏色、果實硬度、可溶性固形物及較低的失重率,所有品種經1℃貯藏21天後其品質均逐漸降低,有無預冷處理並沒有顯著影響。模擬不同櫥架溫度試驗結果,'高雄11號'最佳貯藏溫度為3℃,能維持較好的果實品質且降低寒害症狀,'金桃'品種在3、5、10及15℃貯藏溫度對果實品質及寒害症狀並無顯著差異。此外,不同採收時間對果實貯藏品質無明顯差異,'高雄11號'最佳採收期為2015年3月6日,果實貯藏品質能維持21天左右,'金桃'最佳採收期則為2015年2月13日,其貯藏時間可長達24天。綜合以上結果,台灣棗在貯運過程中以低溫條件配合打孔PE袋包裝進行貯藏,可以維持較好的果實品質,可作為另外一種商業管理作業之參考。
其他識別: U0005-2408201512544700
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-08-26起公開。
Appears in Collections:園藝學系

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-104-7102032035-1.pdf4 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.