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Antifungal Activities of Medicinal Plants Extract for Controlling Crown Rot Pathogens on 'Pei-Chiao' Banana (Musa spp., Giant Cavendish, AAA Group)
|關鍵字:||藥用植物;車前草;黃柏;肉桂油;丁香;軸腐病;抗菌;香蕉;medicinal plant;Plantago asiatica L.;cortex phellodendri;cinnamon;clove;crown rot disease;antifungal;banana fruit||引用:||Abd-Alla, MA., NG. EI-Gamal, NS. EI-Mougy, and MM. Abdel-Kader. 2014. Post-harvest treatments for controlling crown rot disease of Williams banana fruits (Musa acuminate L.) in Egypt. Plant Pathol. Quarantine. 4. 1: 1-12. Alvindia, D.G., T. Kobayashi, Y. Yaguchi, and K.T. Natsuaki. 2000. Symptoms and the associated fungi of postharvest diseases on non-chemical bananas imported from the Philippines. Jpn. J. Trop. Agric. 44: 87- 93. Alvindia, D.G., T. Kobayashi, Y. Yaguchi, and K.T. Natsuaki. 2002. Pathogenicity of fungi isolated from non-chemical bananas. Jpn. J. Trop. Agric. 44: 215-223. Alvindia, D.G., T. Kobayashi, K.T. Natsuaki, and S. Tanda. 2004. Inhibitory influence of inorganic salts on banana postharvest pathogens and preliminary application to control crown rot. J. Gen. Plant Pathol. 70: 61-65. Alvindia, D. G. 2012. 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Antifungal activities of clove oil against Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum in vitro and in wound fruit test. J. Food Safety. 32: 84-93||摘要:||
Banana (Musa spp.) is a commercially important fruit crop of world. However, its short shelf life and suffers severe postharvest losses seriously limit the marketing of the fruits. Fungal disease, maning crown rot is a serious problem in banana. Fungicides are the primary means for controlling fungal diseases. However, many consumers prefer chemical free banana for their taste and pesticide free status. Medicinal plants are alternative methods that can control fungal disease, because a range of biological activities had been found in plant extracts including wound healing activity, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial. In this study, the effect of different medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three pathogens causing crown rot disease, which include Collectotrichum musae, Fusarium spp., and Lasiodiplodia theobromae was studied in vitro and in vivo conditions.
The first experiment, the assay was conducted with extract of In Plantago asiatica L. seed extract (PAS) concentrations that were extracted by blender of 1%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 50% and 90%. The hyphae of PAS concentration with 90% treatment had been normally grown, but these hyphae could not form mycelium. The second experiment is the effect of different medicinal plants which include cortex phellodendri extract, cinnamon oil, cinnamon extract and clove extract at 10% with autoclave and non-autoclave medium in vitro condition. With or without autoclaved were not effected on the efficiency of medicinal plant extract. All treatments delayed these three fungi, especially cinnamon oil and clove extract. The third experiment is the effect of different concentrations of cinnamon oil and clove extract in vitro condition, on peduncle discs and on banana fruits. 20% concentration of clove extract can inhibit a mycelium growth in vitro condition. In vivo condition, the crown treated with clove extract had less mycelium on the surface. The most efficient inhibition is cinnamon. Between essential oil and extract of Cinnamon' bark, cinnamon oil is more efficiency than extract and the high oil property means the high inhibition. The last experiment is the effect of synthetic cinnamon oil on mycelial growth of three pathogens causing crown rot and anthracnose diseases in vitro condition and banana fruits. Synthetic cinnamon oil can completely inhibit at 0.025%-0.05% in all pathogens causing crown rot in vitro
condition. Concentration at 0.1 is too high for treated on banana fruits because of a phytotoxic on the peel.
These suggest that medicinal plants can delay and inhibit the growth of three fungi which are causing crown rot disease on banana fruits. Medicinal plants are an alternative method for controlling crown rot disease which is more safety than a synthetic fungicide, especially cinnamon and clove. However, we should use in appropriate dose because of a tolerance of fruits and an allergy in some people.
香蕉 (Musa spp.)是世界性重要的貿易水果，然而其櫥架壽命短以及採收後 嚴重耗損使得受到限制銷售，真菌病害是採後非面臨的問題如軸腐利用殺菌藥劑控制真疾病是主要方法，但許多消費者更喜歡以非農和化學處理香蕉，藥用植物可作為替代性方法來控制真菌病害從中提取已發現具有傷口癒合、抗炎鎮痛氧化劑和微生物之活性。因此，對三種造成軸腐病，其中包括炭疽菌 (Collectotrichum musae)、鐮刀菌屬 (Fusarium spp.)，和 Lasiodiplodia theobromae 之致病菌 菌絲生長在不同藥用植物萃取，進行離體和 香蕉果實上進行研究。第一個試驗以使用車前草（ PAS）抽取物濃度稀釋 1、2、 10%或5%、10%、15％、 50％、 90％和 100%，在 90％PAS之處理菌絲正常生長， 但菌絲無法再形成新。第二個試驗以不同的藥用植物，其中包括黃柏提取物、肉桂油提取和丁香稀釋 10倍與高壓滅菌 釜和非釜滅菌處理以培養基觀察，有無高壓對效藥用植物並不影響，所有處理皆可延遲這三種真菌生長特別是肉桂油以及丁香提取物。第個試驗是在離體下以不同濃度肉桂 油、丁香提取物作用在蕉果軸以 及實上，20％丁香提取物可以抑制菌絲生長，在體內試驗中處理冠有表面上 少菌絲。最高效抑制物為肉桂，其精油和樹皮之提取比更高抑制效率和較的油性狀亦有作用。最後試驗是肉桂（化學合成）對三種致病菌引起冠腐和炭疽的疾在體外條件下香蕉果軸實絲生長之影響，肉桂油（化學合成）稀釋 0.025-0.05%可使軸腐病在體外條件下所 有的病原體完全受到抑制。處理稀釋 0.1%，濃度過高會使果皮上出現藥害。這些 藥用植物可延緩和抑制造成軸腐病 的這三種真菌在香蕉果實生長，而藥用植物 用於控制軸腐病，比合成的殺真菌劑更安全研究結果認為肉桂和丁香可作其替代性抑制軸腐病之藥劑。
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