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標題: 柳杉木醋液及其分離部於促進蔬菜種苗生長與田間植栽試驗之應用
Application of Cryptomeria japonica wood vinegar and its partition fractions on promoting the growth of the vegetable seedling and plant field experiment
作者: Jui-Yu Hung
關鍵字: 柳杉木醋液;分配法;種苗生長;壯苗指數;田間植栽試驗;Cryptomeria japonica wood vinegar;Partition method;Growth of seedling;Seedling index;Plant filed experiment
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本研究將柳杉(Cryptomeria japonica)以機械窯依升溫速率100℃/hr,分別加熱至350及500℃,並持溫1 hr製造粗木醋液,再將粗木醋液靜置3個月所得之木醋液,以乙醚、碳酸氫鈉溶液、硫酸溶液及氫氧化鈉溶液等藥劑,以分配法(Partition method)將木醋液有機成分分離成乙醚萃取木醋液(Ether-extracted wood vinegar)、酸性(Acidic fraction)、酚性(Phenolic fraction)及中性分離部(Neutral fraction)等四種藥劑,除分析其基本性質及以GC-MS鑑定其有機成分外,並探討各藥劑對促進蔬菜種苗生長及田間植株試驗之效能。試驗結果顯示,熱解溫度350及500℃柳杉木醋液之含水率介於87.9-89.1%,Gardner色值9.7-9.9,比重介於1.0122-1.0151, pH值約2.6,有機酸含量介於3.59-4.35%,溶解焦油含量則介於0.37-1.58%。熱解溫度350℃柳杉木醋液各分離部中,以酸性分離部含量最高,酚性分離部次之,熱解溫度500℃則以酚性分離部為最多,酸性分離部為次之,而兩者皆以中性分離部含量最少。熱解溫度350及500℃之柳杉木醋液的有機成分又以醋酸(Acetic acid)含量最多;酸性物質中均以醋酸含量最高,次之為丙酸(Propanoic acid)及丁酸(Butanoic acid);酚性物質均以酚(Phenol)及2-甲氧基酚(2-Methoxy-phenol)含量最高;中性物質主要為呋喃類(Furfural)及環戊烯酮類衍生物(Cyclopentenone derivatives),以2-呋喃甲醇(2-Furanmethanol)及2-呋喃基乙酮(1-(2-Furanyl)- ethanone)含量最高。
在促進種苗生長方面,以熱解溫度500℃之乙醚萃取木醋液稀釋10⁵及10⁷倍者促進無絲小白菜(Brassica chinensis L.)、半結球白菜(Brassica campestris L.)及皺葉萵苣(Lactuca sativa L.)種苗生長效果為最佳,以施用稀釋10⁵倍之壯苗指數(1)其值分別為0.1707、0.1634及0.1036。不同稀釋倍數之酚性分離部則會抑制無絲小白菜及半結球白菜之種苗生長,但對皺葉萵苣種苗生長則無顯著影響;酸性分離部促進葉片分化效果較佳;中性及酚性分離部皆可促進種苗根系發展,而木醋液促進種苗生長仍以整體有機成分之綜合效果為主。
在田間植株試驗中,以熱解溫度350℃柳杉木醋液之酚性、酸性分離部稀釋10⁵倍者促進小白菜(Brassica rapa L. Chinensis Group)生長效果最佳,全株鮮重分別為24.00及20.76 g,而青梗白菜(Brassica rapa chinensis (L.) Hanelt)則以酸性分離部及乙醚萃取木醋液澆灌者促進其生長最具效果,且四種藥劑均能降低植體中硝酸態氮含量;對蕃茄(Solanum Lycopericum L.)而言,以乙醚萃取木醋液及酸性分離部澆灌者能促進其株高生長,且提高總可溶性固形物含量(Total solid content),然中性分離部雖會抑制株高生長,但卻不影響總可溶性固形物含量;對玉米(Zea mays L.)而言,以乙醚萃取木醋液澆灌者之果實鮮重為最重,而酸性、中性及酚性分離部對果實鮮重無顯著促進效果,但對玉米果粒飽滿程度與未結果實部分較對照組佳,因此,柳杉木醋液及其分離部應用於田間植栽試驗,不僅能促進蔬菜生長,亦能促進果實生長。

In this study, the crude wood vinegars were made from Cryptomeria japonica by using steel kiln heated to 350℃ and 500℃ respectively, under the heating rate of 100℃/hr and holding time of 1 hr. The wood vinegars were obtained by setting the crude wood vinegar for 3 months. And then the ether-extracted wood vinegar, acidic, phenolic and neutral fractions of wood vinegars were obtained by partition method using ether, NaHCO3(aq), H2SO4(aq) and NaOH(aq) as a chemical agent. The fundamental properties of wood vinegars and organic ingredients of acidic compounds, phenolic compounds and neutral compounds as well as the application of organic compounds on promoting the growth of seedling and plant filed experiment of vegetable were examined. The results indicated that the wood vinegars from C. japonica produced by pyrolysis temperature 350℃and 500℃ had a moisture content of 87.9-89.1%, Gardner color value of 9.7-9.9, specific gravity of 1.0122-1.0151, pH of 2.6, organic acid content of 3.59-4.35% and soluble tar content of 0.37-1.58%. The results also showed that the phenolic fraction was the highest content, followed by the acidic fraction for the wood vinegar with pyrolysis temperature of 500℃. However, the acidic fraction was the highest content, followed by the phenolic fraction for the wood vinegar with pyrolysis temperature of 350℃. In addition, the neutral fraction content was the least content for both wood vinegars obtained from pyrolysis temperature of 350℃ and 500℃. The main organic compounds of both wood vinegars were acetic acid. The main compound in acidic fraction was acetic acid, followed by propanoic acid and butanoic acid; in phenolic fraction was phenol and 2-methoxy-phenol; in the neutral fraction the main compounds were furfural and cyclopentenone derivatives for both wood vinegars, while 2-furanmethanol and 1-(2-furanyl)- ethanone were the major compounds for both wood vinegars.
The 105 and 107 times dilution of ether-extracted wood vinegar which obtained from the wood vinegar with pyrolysis temperature of 500℃ could promote the seedling growth of Brassica chinensis L., Brassica campestris L. and Lactuca sativa L. The seedling index (1) were 0.1707, 0.1634 and 0.1036 respectively which were diluted 105 times. The results also founded that the phenolic fraction with different concentrations in this study would inhibit the seedling growth of B. chinensis L. and B. Campestris but which did not affect the growth of L. sativa L. However, the acidic fraction could increase the number of leaves of seedling; the phenolic and neutral fractions could promote the root growth of the seedling. As a conclusion, the major promotion effectives on the seedling growth is due to the whole ingredients of the wood vinegar.
In the plant field experiment, the phenolic and acidic fractions which were diluted 105 times could promote the growth of the Brassica rapa L. Chinensis Group. And the fresh weight which were 24.00 and 20.76 g respectively. The growth of the Brassica rapa chinensis (L.) Hanelt which were watered by acidic fraction and ether-extracted wood vinegar could be promoted significantly. The results also showed that the four kinds of agent could reduce the nitrate concentrations on the plant. Both of the ether-extracted wood vinegar and the acidic fraction could increase the growth of the stem height and the total solid content for Solanum Lycopericum L. However, the neutral fraction could inhibit the growth of the stem height, but the total solid content was not affect. The Zea mays L. which was watered by ether-extracted wood vinegar had the largest fresh weight of the fruit. However, using the neutral, phenolic and acidic fractions were no significant to enhance the fruit weight to of Z. mays L., but the grain of corn was full and the length of corn without grain were less than that of the control. As a conclusion, the C. japonica wood vinegar and its derivative fractions used in the plant field experiment were not only to promote the growth of the vegetables, but also to increase the growth of the fruits.
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