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標題: 森林植物有機揮發成分解析及其對中樞神經系統與情緒之作用
Deciphering the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds of Forest Plants and Their Effects on Central Nervous Systems and Mood States
作者: Chi-Jung Chen
關鍵字: 森林浴;芬多精;精油;療癒功能;自律神經;POMS情緒量表;Forest bathing;Phytoncide;Essential oil;Therapeutic effects;Autonomic nervous;POMS
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研究結果顯示,無論在針、濶葉樹林相內所測得之萜類化合物,主要為α-松烯(α-pinene)及d-檸檬烯(d-limonene);而芬多精之釋出,以楓香(Liquidambar formosana Hance)為例,隨著氣溫上升而增加,至35℃之釋出量最高,超過35℃後,芬多精之釋出即急遽減少。
本研究亦針對山胡椒(Litsea cubeba (Lour) Persoon)揮發成分組成及其對動物中樞神經之調節作用與紅檜、扁柏對人類血壓、心跳及自律神經等生理功能與情緒等心理功能進行研究。分析結果顯示山胡椒果實精油成分以香葉醛(geranial;36.16%)、橙花醛(neral;28.29%)及d-檸檬烯(22.90%)為主。並證明山胡椒果實揮發性成分可顯著延長小鼠之睡眠時間、減少強迫游泳試驗所產生的不動時間;在高腳十字迷宮試驗中也顯示出山胡椒果實揮發性成分具有抗焦慮的功用。本研究亦證實成年人在吸收兩種檜木精油(紅檜及日本扁柏)5分鐘後,自律神經呈現不同的反應。無論男女在吸收紅檜精油後使得收縮壓下降、舒張壓上升以及心跳下降、交感神經活性下降、副交感神經活性上升,而在自律神經總活性方面則提升;但吸收扁柏精油後,無論收縮壓、舒張壓與心跳均下降;但交感神經活性上升,副交感神經活性下降,且自律神經總活性方面則提升。在檜木精油對情緒影響的評估結果方面,當人體接受了紅檜或是扁柏的精油,於緊張、沮喪、憤怒、疲倦與困惑等構面,使用精油後緊張感顯著下降;而在活力構面上則無顯著差異 (但就平均數而言活力在使用精油後有提升)。本研究之成果建立了台灣森林芬多精的本土資料,並賦予了林木揮發性成分科學性的數據,成果除了提供林業機關作為環境教育及推廣資料外,並可做為未來擬定森林遊樂計畫時之參考。

Nowadays people recognize empirically that the potential therapeutic effects of forest environment. Taking in the forest atmosphere or forest bathing could provide relaxation and reducing stress. However, the therapeutic effect of forest environment still needs the scientific evidence for supporting its mechanisms. In addition, the volatile compounds (phytoncide) emitted from vary trees. To study and establish the local phytoncide database and explore its effects on physiology of animal in Taiwan is a valuable and useful study topic.
In this study, the phytoncide emitted from the represent conifers and broad-leaved trees as well as their constructed forestry will be characterized. Then, the effects of Phytoncide on central nervous system (animal behavior and sleeping regulation), autonomic nervous response regulation and profile of mood states were further investigated.
The result shown that α-pinene and d-limonene were the main terpenoids emitted from conifers and broad-leaved trees. The amounts of phytoncide emitted from Liquidambar formosana Hance increased with temperature from 25℃ to 35℃. The maximum content was at 35℃. Then dramatically decreased at 40℃.
Furthermore, several behavioral analyses were conducted to evaluate the neuropharmacological activity of the essential fruit oil of Litsea cubeba in ICR mice. Oral administration of L. cubeba fruit oil significantly prolonged pentobarbitone-induced mouse sleeping time. In addition, after administration of L. cubeba fruit oil, mice significantly increased the time spent in the open arms and number of entries into the open arms of an elevated plus-maze compared to saline-treated mice, it suggested that L. cubeba fruit oil has anxiolytic activity. The main components of L. cuneba were geranial (37.16%), neral (28.29%), and d-limonene (22.90%). The results indicated that L. cubeba fruit oil has a potent effect on the central nervous system for mice.
In addition, the effects of Benihi (Chamaecyparis formosensis) and Hinoki (Chamaecyparis obtusa) wood essential oils on human autonomic nervous system activity were examined. Sixteen healthy adults received Benihi or Hinoki by inhalation for 5 min, and the physiological and psychological effects were detected. After inhaling Benihi essential oil, participant's systolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were decreased, and diastolic blood pressure increased. In addition, sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) was significantly decreased, and parasympathetic nervous activity (PSNA) was significantly increased. On the other hand, after inhaling Hinoki essential oil, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and PSNA were decreased, whereas SNA was increased. Indeed, both Benihi and Hinoki essential oils increased heart rate variability (HRV) in tested adults. Furthermore, in the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test, both Benihi and Hinoki wood essential oils stimulated a pleasant mood status. The results strongly suggest that Benihi and Hinoki essential oils could be suitable agents for the development of regulators of sympathetic nervous system dysfunctions.
The study established the native profile for Taiwan forest phytoncide and shown the scientific data in the volatile compounds of trees. The results could not only provide forestry agency for environmental education and promotion resources, but also the reference material for drawing up the forest recreation plan.
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