Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89265
標題: 由惠蓀林場百年經營歷史探討地景之變遷(1916~2012)
Studies on the forest management history of Hui-Sun Forest Station based on landscape change from 1916 to 2012
作者: Jiun-Ting Lu
呂俊廷
關鍵字: 惠蓀林場;經營;土地利用;轉移矩陣;地景指數;Hui-Sun forest station;management;land use;transition matrix;landscape index
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摘要: 
本研究目的為收集惠蓀林場之經營計畫書或調查報告且配合歷史圖層了解各時期林場經營對地景的影響,將林場的經營歷史劃分為五個階段,日據時期(1916至1945)、第三模範林場(1946-1949)、能高實驗林場時期(1949至1967)、惠蓀林場時期(1967至1998)以及地震與震後時期(1999至2012),藉由分析地景之變遷與不同時期之管理方法探討不同的經營方式對於地景的影響,日據時期以研究試驗與學生實習為主要目的,引進約二十六種樹種進行造林之相關研究。1926年增撥萱野苗圃145.49 ha,林場面積增為7,423.08 ha,在此期間建立惠蓀林場之經營基礎。第三模範林場雖然有經營計劃案並無太多實質性的經營措施,以林況調查以及苗圃恢復為主要施業項目,將日據時期演習林研究試驗資料整理,有承先啟後的作用。能高林場時期經費採自給自足制大面積造林與伐木,具有經營經濟林、教學及研究之多重任務,此時林場積極造林,並將伐木跡地改植如杉木(Cunninghamia lanceolata)、香杉(Cunninghamia konishii)、台灣杉(Taiwania cryptomerioides)、肖楠(Calocedrus formosana)與紅檜(Chamaecyparis formosensis)等高價的人工林樹種。惠蓀林場時期從經濟伐採到多目標經營,見證遊樂區的發展,前期為經濟伐採為主,人工林面積增至1,096 ha,無立木地、闊葉林、天然針闊混淆林面積皆下降。後期由於經營重心在森林遊樂區經營上,天然林嵌塊體有向外擴張的趨勢,檜木、杉木人工林、其他針葉樹造林、其他闊葉樹造林、可植裸地等轉為闊葉林;杉木人工林有大量小面積的造林,其他種類的人工林有減少的趨勢,造林樹種漸漸單一化。地震與震後時期,1999年921集集大地震對地景產生巨大的干擾,崩塌地面積增加549.16 ha占林場面積的7.35%,由於震後並無編定新經營計劃書主要以天然演替為撫育方法,至2005年崩塌地面積減少至442.21 ha。受地震干擾地景更為破碎,杉木人工林、闊葉林、可植裸地、不可植裸地、針闊混淆林以及松林皆有破碎的情形,闊葉林尤其嚴重;天然恢復後崩塌地多恢復成草生地或者闊葉林,草生地漸漸演替成闊葉林,闊葉林擴張使天然林嵌塊體合併。2001-2005期間有發現杉木林被闊葉林入侵面積下降;闊葉林與天然針闊混淆林,易受颱風豪雨影響崩塌。

In this study, we collected historical operating plan or field survey report and LU/LC layer of Hui-Sun forest station to discuss the relation between forest management history and landscape change. The forestry management history is divided into five stages, including the Japanese colonial period (1916-1945), The third exemplary forest station(1946-1949), Neng-Kao Experimental Forest station period (1949-1967), Hui-Sun forest station period (1967-1998) and after-earthquake period (1999-2005 ). The main purpose of Japanese colonial period is science research and student internships. About 26 kinds of tree species were introduced for plantation research in this period. The Hsuan-Yeh Nursery, 145.49 ha, was established in 1926, and the area of forest station became 7,423.08 ha. The forestry management of Hui-Sun Forest station was based on this period. There was no substantive forest management at Third Exemplary Forest Station period. The manager focused on field survey, nursery recovery and arranged research data of Japanese colonial period. The expenditure of Neng-Kao Experimental Forest Station was self-sufficient, so huge logging and afforestation areas were needed. Economic forest management, education and science research were the other purposes. At this time afforestation actively and replanting high value species such as Cunninghamia lanceolata, Cunninghamia konishii, Taiwania cryptomerioides, Calocedrus formosana and Chamaecyparis formosensis. The objective of management was transfer from economic to forest multiple uses during Hui-Sun Forest Station period. Early of this period, the manager focused on economic lumbering thus plantation area increased to 1,096 ha. The area of non-standing land, natural broadleaves forest and natural mixed forest were decreased. Later period, the forest recreation management became the main purpose. Cypress, C. lanceolata plantations, other coniferous plantation, other broadleaves plantations and bared land, where could be planted, were transfer to natural broadleaves forest. There were a lot of small patches of C. lanceolata plantation, the tendency of other type plantation area decreased. Planting species was simplificative in this period. After earthquake, landslide area increased 549.16 ha(7.35%) because of 921 earthquake. Due to no new management plan, which natural forest recovery was adapted, the landslide area decreased to 442.21 ha until 2005. Because of the earthquake, the landscape and forest stands, including C. lanceolata plantations, natural broadleaves forest (most serious), bared land, natural mixed forest and pine forest, were more fragile. Landslide areas transferred to grass-lands or natural broadleaves forest. The expansion of natural broadleaves forest made its' patch merged. Because natural broadleaves forest invaded, C. lanceolata plantations area decreased during 2001 to 2005. Natural broadleaves forest and natural mixed forest were vulnerable to collapse by typhoon.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89265
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2017-08-31起公開。
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