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|標題:||The performance of germination and seedling growth of Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) and indigenous trees species in drought environment
|關鍵字:||外來樹種;原生樹種;乾旱;exotic tree species;indigenous trees species;drought||引用:||王相華、郭耀綸、陳芬蕙 (2011) 墾丁熱帶海岸林植生復舊操作技術手冊。墾丁國家公園管理處。1-18頁。 沈里國、簡慶德、林讚標 (2000) 甲基肌醇半乳吡喃糖和其他糖類的玻璃質化形成及其保護人工脂囊膜免於乾燥受損的能力。台灣林業科學 15: 293-301。 李昭宗 (2003) 恆春地區銀合歡入侵及擴散之研究。屏東科技大學森林學研究所碩士論文。 呂福原、陳安民 (2002) 墾丁國家公園外來種植物對原生植群之影響: 以銀合歡為例。保育研究報告第112號。墾丁國家公園管理處。 高潔、曹坤芳、王煥校 (2004) 乾熱河谷9種造林樹種在旱季的水分關係及氣孔導度。植物生態學報 28: 186-190。 許正一、簡士濠 (2010) 墾丁熱帶海岸林生態復舊研究及監測計畫 (二): 熱海岸林土壤性質空間分布及其對海岸林樹種生長的影響。墾丁國家公園管理處。76-12頁。 陳凌雲、劉瓊霦 (2009) 升高二氧化碳濃度與水分缺乏對樟樹苗木形質生長及碳水化合物分配的影響。林業研究季刊 31: 43-53。 郭耀綸 (1994) 從生理及形態上比較共存之相思樹及蒲姜對乾旱環境的適應。中華林學季刊 27: 37-54。 郭耀綸 (2013) 植物耐陰性及台灣原生樹種耐陰性類別。林業研究專訊 20: 36-40。 郭昱君 (2007) 土地利用變遷對入侵植物分布之影響以墾丁國家公園為例。國立台灣大學生命科學院生態學與演化生物學研究所碩士論文。 馮郁筑 (2008) 航空照片應用於恆春半島之銀合歡植群擴散。屏東科技大學森林系學位論文。 潘富俊 (2007) 福爾摩沙植物記: 101種台灣植物文化圖鑑及27種台灣植物文化議題。遠流出版事業股份有限公司。 譚新導、張生芳、張輝波、張中潤、陳志權、符悅冠 (2007) 中國南部新發現的入侵蟲害-銀合歡豆象。熱帶作物學報 28: 101-103。 蘇鴻傑、蘇中原 (1988) 墾丁國家公園植群之多變數分析。中華林學季刊 21: 17-32。 Bates, L. S., R. P. Waldren and I. D. 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本試驗主要比較夏威夷型銀合歡 (Leucaena leucocephala Lam.) 及相思樹 (Acacia confusa Merr.)、水黃皮 (Pongamia pinnata L.)、草海桐 (Scaevola hainanensis Hance)、欖仁 (Terminalia catappa L.) 及茄苳 (Bischofia javanica Blume) 等五種原生樹種苗木的耐旱能力，以瞭解乾旱是否會增加夏威夷型銀合歡植群的擴展能力。試驗結果顯示，植株氮含量會影響植物在乾旱環境的形態調適作用及生理生化反應，葉片氮含量最低的欖仁及茄苳在偏乾燥 (土壤水勢-0.32 ~ -0.99 MPa) 及乾燥土壤環境 (土壤水勢-1.26 ~ -1.88 MPa)，其偏向維持葉片生長以保留養分及增加養分利用率，並同時誘導SOD、POD及CAT等抗氧化酵素活性升高及非光化學消散作用增加以提高光保護作用減緩細胞傷害，且由於植株必須將光合同化產物投資於光保護作用上，導致根重、莖重及全株淨生長量明顯低於夏威夷型銀合歡、相思樹及水黃皮等不偏向維持葉片生長的樹種。全株氮含量低的草海桐、欖仁及茄苳在乾燥土壤生長105天後，氮含量也會傾向分配於莖部及根部，導致全株碳氮比顯著降低，並伴隨著較低的全株相對淨生長量，顯示氮含量低的植物不適合生長在長期乾旱環境。六試驗樹種中，夏威夷型銀合歡及其常見的伴生種相思樹的耐旱能力最高，夏威夷型銀合歡苗木在30天短期的偏乾燥及乾燥環境，其剛成熟葉片的光合速率不受影響且細胞膜滲漏率沒有顯著增加，而相思樹葉片細胞已受傷害，但生長速率較慢的相思樹苗木反而更能耐受105天長期偏乾燥及乾燥環境，其全株相對淨生長量顯著高於夏威夷型銀合歡。進一步比較二樹種種子發芽階段的耐乾燥能力，發現夏威夷型銀合歡及相思樹種子胚根突破種皮後，種子從耐乾燥轉變成不耐乾燥，此耐乾燥能力的轉變與發芽後胚軸內蔗糖與棉子糖含量的比值及單醣與棉子糖含量的比值大幅度增加有關，顯示發芽後種子耐乾燥能力喪失導因於棉仔糖含量降低與蔗糖及單醣含量維持或些微增加的共同作用所致，且已發芽的夏威夷型銀合歡種子對不同乾燥程度的耐受能力普遍高於伴生樹種相思樹，顯示在乾旱環境下，夏威夷型銀合歡較相思樹更具植群擴展優勢性。
This study compared the desiccation tolerance of exotic Leucaena leucocephala Lam. and indigenous Acacia confusa Merr., Pongamia pinnata L., Scaevola hainanensis Hance, Terminalia catappa L. and Bischofia javanica Blume. The desiccation tolerance of seedlings is crucial for growth and colonization of species under the increasing trend of extreme rainfall frequency and the yearly non-rainy day in Taiwan. The result indicated that nitrogen limitation influenced the morphological, physiological and biochemical performance in response to desiccation stress. T. catappa and B. javanica with lowest nitrogen content in leaf showed a longer leaf life span (plants maintained the leaf mass ratio and leaf area ratio) under experimental drought conditions in comparison with nitrogen-fixing species (L. leucocephala, A. confusa and P. pinnata). The morphological adjustment difference related to leaf-longevity also reflected in their photo-protective mechanism. T. catappa and B. javanica induced superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) antioxidant enzyme activity and increased non-photochemical quenching under moderate (soil water potential 0.32 ~ -0.99 MPa) and serious (-1.26 ~ -1.88 MPa) dry soil in contrast to the decrease of photo-protective mechanism of species with a shorter leaf life-span (L. leucocephala, A. confusa and P. pinnata). The trade-off between leaf turnover and biochemical influenced the allocation of biomass. T. catappa and B. javanica with longer leaf life span had the significantly lower root, stem and whole plant biomass than species with a shorter leaf life-span (L. leucocephala, A. confusa and P. pinnata) under serious dry soil after long term period (105 days). Moreover, species with lower whole-plant nitrogen content (S. hainanensis, T. catappa and B. javanica) prefer allocation of nitrogen to root and stem rather than to leaf, and it coincided with the lower C/N ratio and whole plant biomass under serious dry soil than species with higher whole-plant nitrogen content (L. leucocephala, A. confusa and P. pinnata). Therefore, species with low nitrogen content are not suitable for growth in long term dry soil. In the seedling stage, L. leucocephala and its common indigenous congener A. confusa was most desiccation-tolerant among six experimental species in long term dry environment (soil water potential -0.32~ -1.88 MPa). In order to compare further the ability of L. leucoephala and A. confuse to colonize habitats in dry soil, we investigated the desiccation tolerance of imbibed seeds of both species. The result indicated that embryonic axis protruded from L. leucocephala and A. confusa seed coats in coincidence with the transition from desiccation tolerance to intolerance.
The loss of desiccation tolerance in the embryonic axis of L. leucocephala and A. confusa upon the protrusion of embryonic axis was resulted from the degradation of raffinose and the slight increase of sucrose and monosaccharides. Moreover, seeds of L. leucocephala were more tolerant to desiccation than A. confusa after the protrusion of embryonic axis at various moisture contents. The result suggested that in the germinated stage L. leucocephala with superior desiccation tolerance will gain an advantage over their indigenous congener A. confusa for setting up population.
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