Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89307
標題: Phenology of Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei in Hengchun Peninsula, Taiwan
臺灣地區恆春半島斯氏榕物候之研究
作者: Yi-Hsun Liu
劉怡洵
關鍵字: 斯氏榕;榕果形態;物候;性別分化;共生;授粉生態;Ficus tinctoria ssp;swinhoei;fig morphology;phenology;sexual differentiation;symbiosis;pollination ecology
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摘要: 
榕屬 (Ficus) 植物常為熱帶及亞熱帶森林重要之關鍵物種 具有非常獨,特的榕果物候及專一性的共生授粉生態系統。本研究自 2010 年 8 月至2014 年 5 月,每隔 2-3 週赴屏東縣恆春鎮墾丁青年活動中心青蛙石步道調查 38 株之斯氏榕 (Ficus tinctoria Forst. f. ssp. swinhoei (King) Corner )(♀:17,♂:21),探討榕果形態、雌雄族群物候及榕果生產策略之性別分化,以及斯氏榕與斜葉榕小蜂 (Liporrhopalum gibbosae Hill) 之共生授粉生態。雌雄榕果在榕果外部形態相似幾乎無法區別,僅榕果內部形態明顯分化,種子只在雌榕果生產,蟲癭只在雄榕果產生。雌榕果內總小花數平均為415.6±147.3 朵 種子率為 78.5±18.0% 雄榕果內總小花數平均為 650.5±34.8朵 包括蟲癭花為 614.8±34.5 朵 雄花為 34.3±6.0 朵 蟲癭率為 41.4±16.1%。物候結果顯示恆春半島地區之斯氏榕幼葉主要發生在春、夏 2 季,與平均氣溫及累積降雨量呈顯著正相關,雌株成熟葉量及平均氣溫呈顯著正相關,雄株成熟葉量與平均氣溫及累積降雨量皆無顯著相關;雌株之前雌期榕果與平均氣溫及累積降雨量呈顯著正相關,而雄株則與氣象因子相關不顯著,顯示斯氏榕物候呈現明顯的性別分化,分別適應其生育地環境。斯氏榕在重量與體積關係 雌株對於單一榕果之生產投入較多的資源 隨榕果發育,榕果乾物質投資的比例亦增加;雄株對單一榕果生產之投資較少,隨榕果發育,榕果乾物質投資的比例大致呈一定值,亦反映出性別分化現象。於斯氏榕出現的小蜂種類包括 1 種授粉蜂、5 種類寄生蜂 (Sycoryctes sp1.、Sycoryctes sp2.、Philotrypesis sp1.、Philotrypesis sp2. 及 Arachonia sp.) 及 2 種造癭蜂 (Eufroggattisca sp.及 Sycophila sp.)。

The Ficus spp., which is found in tropical and subtropical forests, is one of the 'keystone species,' as it has special phenology patterns and a mutualism–pollination ecology. One dioecious fig, Ficus tinctoria Forst. f. ssp. swinhoei (King) Corner on the Cingwashih Trail of the Kenting Youth Activity Center in Pingtung, was surveyed regularly every 2–3 weeks from August 2010 to May 2014. This research studied the fig's morphology, its phenological sexual differentiation, its syconium productive strategy, and the pollination–mutualism relationship between the fig and its species special pollinator, the Liporrhopalum gibbosae Hill. The male and female figs have almost identical external morphologies, but different interior structures. The long style female flowers have seeds which are pollinated by the female figs, whereas in the male figs, the short style female flowers develop galls because of eggs laid by wasps. In the female fig, the average number of florets is 415.6 ± 147.3, and the seed ratio is 78.5% ± 18.0%. In the male fig, the average number of florets is 650.5 ± 34.8, with the short style female flower having 614.8 ± 34.5 and the male flower having 34.3 ± 6.0, with a gall ratio of about 41.4% ± 16.1%. The leaf phenology shows that the tender leaves of the Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei in Hengchun Peninsula, which have a definitive positive correlation with temperature and rainfall, are mainly found in spring and summer. The number of mature leaves on the female tree is also positively correlated with average temperature, but the number of mature leaves on the male trees shows insignificant correlation with average temperature and rainfall. A positive correlation was also found between the A phase female syconia and average temperature and rainfall, but this was not found in male trees. The phenology of the Ficus tinctoria ssp. swinhoei does show some seasonality related to climatic fluctuations on the Hengchun Peninsula. A sexual specialization when considering syconia production investment was observed from the relationship between the volume and weight of the wet or dry syconia. As the female tree invests more resources into a single female syconium, the dry volume to weight ratio increases in a geometric progression as the female syconium develops. The male tree, however, invests fewer resources into the single male syconium, which results in a stable dry volume to weight ratio as it develops. Seven species of fig wasps were discovered on the Ficus tinctoria, and one pollinator species on the Liporrhopalum gibbosae. The Sycoryctes sp1., Sycoryctes sp., Philotrypesis sp1., Philotrypesis sp2., and Arachonia sp. were found to be parasitic nonpollinators, and two species, i.e., Eufroggattisca sp.and Sycophila sp1, were found to be gallers.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/89307
其他識別: U0005-2206201509463000
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