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Efficacy of substrates amendment on control of Chinese cabbage damping-off and mechanism investigation
|關鍵字:||白菜;立枯絲核菌;拮抗微生物;栽培介質;覆蓋厚度;Chinese cabbage;Antagonistic microorganisms;Rhizoctonia solani;substrates;Thickness||引用:||Aliferis, K., Cubeta, M., and Jabaji, S. 2013. Chemotaxonomy of fungi in the Rhizoctonia solani species complex performing GC/MS metabolite profiling. Metabolomics 9: 159-169. Asaka, O., and Shoda, M. 1996. Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani damping-off of tomato with Bacillus subtilis RB14. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62: 4081-4085. Avil?s, M., Borrero, C., and Trillas, M. 2011. Review on compost as an inducer of disease suppression in plants grown in soilless culture. Dynamic Plant, Dynamic Soil 5: 1-11. Barnes, G., Russell, C., Foster, W., and McNew, R. 1981. Aphelenchus avenae, a potential biological control agent for root rot fungi. Plant Disease 65: 423-424. Benson, D., and Baker, R. 1974. Epidemiology of Rhizoctonia solani preemergence damping-off of radish: survival. Phytopathology 64: 1163-1168. Bolton, M., Panella, L., Campbell, L., and Khan, M. 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立枯絲核菌Rhizoctonia solani AG4可引起多種作物苗期猝倒病、生育期根部病害及為害胚軸，導致作物的嚴重損失。目前的防治方法主要為施用化學藥劑，然因安全農業之重視，近來已逐漸發展非農藥防治策略，如使用無土栽培介質、混合堆肥及添加拮抗微生物等方法取代化學藥劑。為比較台灣市售介質抑制小白菜立枯病效果之差異與可能抑病機制，本研究以市售栽培介質於玻璃管柱內進行測試。將介質覆蓋不同厚度於含立枯絲核菌RST04之感染土上，得知有覆蓋介質時可降低小白菜立枯病的發生，且隨覆蓋厚度增加而發病率有降低的趨勢，在溫室中試驗亦有相同情形。然不同介質降低病害能力差異甚大，為了解可能原因，在玻璃管柱內測試介質滅菌與否對小白菜立枯病發病具有影響，結果得知供試介質滅菌後降低防病效果，證實微生物可能為影響防治小白菜立枯病重要因子。將介質、覆蓋厚度及滅菌與否三因子進行分析得知，三因子皆影響小白菜立枯病發病。比較供試栽培介質之不同菌相後，得知介質的總菌量與防治小白菜立枯病間無直接關係；進一步自其中分離純化11株對R. solani RST04菌株具有拮抗作用之細菌與真菌，經分子鑑定得知具拮抗性菌株屬Bacillus spp.或Trichoderma spp.。將Trichoderma 菌株混合栽培介質後，以1 cm 與3 cm 覆蓋於感染土上，得知添加拮抗微生物之介質能提升防病能力，其中Tri01與TN3菌株較其他菌株佳，可降低立枯病病害嚴重度達70 %。以不同廠牌栽培介質混合Tri01與TN3菌株，亦可降低立枯病發生之嚴重度，然各介質間之效果有差異。於溫室實驗指出，未滅菌之Stender Peat (G) 與GRAMOFLOR 6040Tri01廠牌介質混合TN3或Tri01菌株，並覆蓋3 cm時，較其他處理效果佳。本篇研究結果顯示，栽培介質的覆蓋厚度、不同廠牌栽培介質及栽培介質內拮抗微生物存在與否，皆為影響小白菜立枯病發病率因子之一。
Rhizoctonia solani AG4 is a widespread and destructive plant pathogen causes seedling damping-off and early root/hypocotyl damage to many crops. Chemical control in the general method for the control of damping-off caused by R. solani AG4. For agriculture safety, non-chemical controls, including soilless substrates, compost mixtures and antagonistic microorganisms, are the alternative methods to replace the chemical control. The efficacy of commercial substrates on disease control and the possible mechanisms were investigated by the glass tube method in lab and in greenhouse condition. The R. solani AG4 RST04 infested soil lied over substrates could decrease the damping-off of non-head Chinese cabbage in glass tube and greenhouse. Moreover, the higher thickness showed more efficacious control of damping-off of non-head Chinese cabbage. However, the control abilities were various between different commercial substrates. For analyzing the effect of microorganisms in different substrates, the commercial substrates were autoclaved. The results indicated that antagonistic microorganisms played an important role on the control of non-head Chinese cabbage damping-off. Consequently, three factors of substrate, thickness and microorganisms were important to the development of damping-off. However, the microorganism density did not show significant effect on reduction of damping-off. A total of eleven antagonistic microorganisms were selected after the antagonistic test with RST04 test, and these microorganisms belonged to Trichoderma spp. (9 isolates) and Bacillus spp. (2 isolates) based on molecular identification. The further experiments indicated that the substrates mixed with TN3 and Tri01 isolates of Trichoderma could decrease 70% disease severity and showed best efficacy to reduce the damping-off at 1 cm and 3 cm thickness condition. Adding the TN3 and Tri01 isolates into different commercial substrates, the results reveled that the control efficacy was variable among the different substrates. On the other hand, the substrates of Stender peat (G) and GRAMOFLOR 6040 mixed with TN3 or Tri01 had best efficacy on control of damping-off at 3 cm thickness condition. According to the study, substrate thickness, source of substrate and antagonistic microorganisms in substrate are three important factors companied with development of non-head Chinese cabbage damping-off.
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