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Evaluation of essential oil from pomelo (Citrus maxima Burm.) and lemon eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora Hook.) on inhibition of plant pathogens and control of plant diseases
|關鍵字:||精油;柚子;檸檬桉;抗藥性;農業廢棄物;essential oil;pomelo;lemon eucalyptus;fungicide-resistance;agriculture wastes||引用:||Akhtar, M.M., Srivastava, S., Sinha, P., Singh, D.K., Luqman, S., Tandon, S., and Yadav, N.P. 2014. Antimicrobial potential of topical formulation containing essential oil of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. Annals of Phytomedicine 3:37-42. Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D., and Idaomar, M. 2008. Biological effects of essential oils–a review. Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:446-475. Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Kohli, R.K., and Kaur, S. 2008. Eucalyptus essential oil as a natural pesticide. Forest Ecology and Management 256:2166-2174. Batish, D.R., Singh, H.P., Setia, N., Kaur, S., and Kohli, R.K. 2006. Chemical composition and phytotoxicity of volatile essential oil from intact and fallen leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora. Zeitschrift fur Naturforschung C-Journal of Biosciences 61:465-471. Caccioni, D.R., Guizzardi, M., Biondi, D.M., Renda, A., and Ruberto, G. 1998. 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本研究進一步將精油以不同濃度加入含1,000 mg a. i./L亞托敏之PDA培養基中，得知添加稀釋1,000倍之檸檬桉精油後，可提升抑制抗藥性GBS1-104菌株與非抗藥性GBS3-93菌株生長達100%；而添加稀釋100倍之柚子精油，則可提升抑制GBS1-104菌株與GBS3-93菌株生長達71.0%與100.0%。進一步測試添加精油對亞托敏之藥效增加效果，顯示稀釋1,000倍與10,000倍之檸檬桉精油和稀釋100倍之柚子精油對亞托敏之藥效皆有提升效果，而以稀釋1,000倍之檸檬桉精油最佳。本研究測試柚子精油與檸檬桉精油對胡瓜、小白菜生長及草莓植株之影響，指出稀釋20倍以上的柚子精油對小白菜生長無明顯影響，然稀釋100倍以下之檸檬桉精油，則會對所有供試植株造成白灰色斑點之藥害。本研究測試兩種精油小白菜炭疽病、胡瓜炭疽病及草莓灰黴病的防治效果，處理方式為接種病原菌前1小時與後1小時噴施精油，結果得知於接種後1小時施用檸檬桉精油之效果最佳，而草莓果實灰黴病若於接種前處理稀釋50倍之柚子精油與稀釋500倍之檸檬桉精油時，有促進發病的現象。本研究證實柚子與檸檬桉精油具防治植物病害與降低抗藥性發生之潛力，未來可進一步測試精油於溫室與田間提升亞托敏藥效之效果，以及篩選適當的施用方法或劑型，將精油開發為可實際應用之防治資材。
The essential oils of pomelo peel and lemon eucalyptus fallen leaves extracted by steam-distillation revealed that the essential oil content of pomelo peel and lemon eucalyptus fallen leaves was 7.2% and 0.74%, respectively. The chemical composition of the two essential oils analyzed by GC-MS showed that the major component of pomelo essential oil was limonene (96.27%) while the major components of lemon eucalyptus essential oil were citronellal (43.69%) and citronellol (17.06%). The antifungal activity of essential oils against 9 plant pathogens was tested by the volatile activity assay. The results of volatile activity assay showed that, 1X pomelo could decrease the growth of Botrytis cinerea GBS3-93 and GBS1-104 to 92.7% and 100.0%, respectively; however, it enhanced the growth of Penicillium digitatum Cmep1-3. Moreover, 10X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could decrease the growth of all tested pathogen at the rate of 96.6%-100.0%. Based on the results of poisoned food assay, which showed that PDA containing 100X pomelo essential oil could decrease the growth of Colletotrichum higginsianum PA01, B. cinerea GBS3-93 and GBS1-104 at the rate of 89.8%, 81.1% and 73.4%, but enhanced the growth of P. digitatum Cmep1-3. In contrast, PDA containing 1,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could completely inhibit the growth of most tested pathogens. Furthermore, the spore germination inhibiting tests showed that 50X pomelo essential oil could inhibit over 92.6% spore germination of 5 tested pathogens while facilitate spore germination of P. digitatum Cmep1-3(>65.4%). In contrast, 500X lemon eucalyptus essential oil could inhibit over 80.1% spore germination of all tested pathogens. In this study, adding 100X pomelo essential oil, or 1,000X and 10,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil to PDA containing 1,000 mg a. i./L azoxystrobin showed enhanced efficacies on inhibiting azoxystrobin resistant and sensitive B. cinerea isolates. This effect could also be observed in the experiment which added 100X pomelo essential oil or 1,000X and 10,000X lemon eucalyptus essential oil into PDA containing different concentrations of azoxystrobin. Phytotoxicity tests of essential oils on cucumber, Chinese cabbage and strawberry leaves showed that 20X pomelo and 100X lemon eucalyptus essential oil would damage the leaves of cucumber and strawberry. The control efficacies of anthracnose of Chinese cabbage and cucumber, and gray mold of strawberry indicated that spraying essential oils 1 hour after inoculation would reduce the disease severities of gray mold on strawberry fruit; however, spraying 50X pomelo and 500X lemon eucalyptus essential oils 1 hour before inoculation increased the disease severity. This study showed that pomelo and lemon eucalyptus essential oils are potential disease-control agents to reduce the risk of fungicide-resistance.
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