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|標題:||Characterization of physiology and molecular in upland rice under submergence and heat stress
|關鍵字:||upland rice;submergence;heat;陸稻;淹水;高溫||引用:||潘昶儒。2010。花蓮區珍貴多樣化的陸稻資源。花蓮區農業專訊。73: 6-8。 丁文彥。2012。陸稻—東陸1、2、3 號品種介紹。臺東區農業專訊。79: 8-11。 呂坤泉，許志聖，楊嘉凌。2005。水稻的栽培生態分類與稻米市場分類。臺中區農業專訊。50: 24-27. Arpagaus, S., and R. Braendle, 2000. The significance of α‐amylase under anoxia stress in tolerant rhizomes (Acorus calamus L.) and non‐tolerant tubers (Solanum tuberosum L., var. Desiree). J. Exp. Bot. 51: 1475-1477. Ashraf, M., and M. Hafeez, 2004. Thermotolerance of pearl millet and maize at early growth stages: growth and nutrient relations. Biol. Plant. 48: 81-86. Bailey-Serres, J., and L. A. C. J. Voesenek, 2008. Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity. Plant Biol. 59: 313-39. Banti, V., F. Mafessoni, R. Loreti, A. Alpi, and P. Perata, 2010. The heat-inducible transcription factor HsfA2 enhances anoxia tolerance in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 152: 1471-1483. Bianka, S. and S. Margret, 2009. 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因應全球氣候變遷造成極端氣候，環境逆境對水稻之影響更需深入研究。目前研究顯示，當水稻遭遇淹水時具兩種適應機制，分別為低地稻FR13A採取之靜默策略 (quiescence strategy)及深水稻採取之逃脫策略 (escape strategy)。然而陸稻 (upland rice)於淹水逆境之研究相當有限且其於淹水下之機制亦未闡明，因此本研究利用陸稻品種東陸3號 (Tung Lu 3, TL3)進行完全淹水試驗，觀測其生理及分子變化。研究結果顯示，TL3於淹水後植株高度及葉鞘間距離快速增加，顯示TL3於淹水逆境下採取逃脫策略。植株存活率試驗結果顯示，TL3於淹水10天後仍有55%之植株存活率。葉綠素a, b或總葉綠素含量之測量結果顯示，TL3第2葉之葉綠素含量於淹水處理下皆較FR13A多，而第3葉則較FR13A少。TL3於淹水後第2葉之過氧化氫累積情形較FR13A輕微，進一步檢測淹水下之抗氧化相關酵素活性發現，於回復正常生長條件1天後TL3之過氧化酶 (POX)活性與FR13A相比有明顯之上升。TL3於淹水下缺氧相關基因SUS1及ADH1皆有明顯之表現量，顯示其淹水耐受性雖不如FR13A好，但於短期淹水下仍具有一定之耐受性。高溫 (日夜溫40℃)處理下TL3及FR13A株高生長受到抑制，皆較控制組低。葉綠素a, b及總葉綠素含量測定結果顯示，TL3第2葉於高溫下葉綠素含量下降情況較輕微，DAB染色結果呈現TL3第2葉過氧化氫累積之累積較FR13A少。綜合以上結果顯示，於淹水逆境下雖然TL3之存活率較耐淹水稻FR13A低，但其第2葉於淹水下之葉綠素a, b及總葉綠素下降速率較FR13A慢、過氧化氫累積量較少、恢復正常生長環境下之過氧化酶活性也較高。高溫逆境下TL3之葉綠素含量較FR13A高且具較高之高溫耐受性。另外，TL3之HSP58.7、HSP50.2及HSP17基因於非高溫下之表現量皆較FR13A高，闡明陸稻 (東陸3號)無論是在淹水或高溫逆境下皆具有一定之耐受性。
Understanding the responses of rice to environmental stress is more important due to global climate change increasing severity of extreme weather. During rice under submergence, a quiescence strategy based on lowland rice or an escape strategy based on deepwater rice are used for the growth controls. However, little is known about the response of upland rice during submergence stress. Here, we used the upland rice (Tung Lu 3, TL3) to analysis the effect on physiological and molecular during sub- mergence stress. The plant heights and the distance between leaf sheaths of TL3 were increased rapidly under submergence stress which were displayed an escape strategy. Analysis of survival rate was showed that 55% of TL3 seedlings were revealed alive after submergence for 10 days. The contents of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll in TL3 2nd leaf were significantly higher than FR13A. The accumulation of H2O2 in TL3 2nd leaf was lower than FR13A, and the peroxidase activity in TL3 was higher than FR13A after recovered 1 day from submergence treatment. The qRT-PCR analysis presented that the expression levels of ADH1 and SUS1 were induced after submergence treatment in TL3. Under heat stress, both of TL3 and FR13A were revealed lower plant height compare with control. The contents of chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll in TL3 2nd leaf are higher than FR13A under heat stress. The DAB (3 3'- diaminobenzidine) staining showed that the accumulation of H2O2 in TL3 2nd leaf is lower than FR13A. Taken together, under submergence, although the TL3 seedlings were presented lower survival rate compared with FR13A, TL3 were maintains higher chlorophyll contents in 2nd leaf, lower accumulation of H2O2, and higher peroxidase activity after recovered 1 day from submergence treatment. Under heat stress, the TL3 were revealed higher chlorophyll contents and heat tolerance compare with FR13A. The expression levels of HSP58.7, HSP50.2 and HSP17 in TL3 were presented higher than FR13A under control condition. In this study, we have presented the characterization of TL3 under submergence and heat stress.
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