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標題: 利用秈稉稻雜交導入白葉枯病抗性基因至台稉9號水稻品種並進行農藝性狀之遺傳分析
Introgression of Xa genes into TK9 rice variety by using indica-japonica hybridization and study on the inheritance of agronomic traits
作者: Yu-Tien Huang
關鍵字: Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae;白葉枯病
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白葉枯病(bacteria blight disease, BBD)是亞洲種植水稻地區的重大病害之一,嚴重影響水稻的產量,目前以噴施藥劑的管理方式對白葉枯病的控制並無顯著效果。一般認為,將多個抗白葉枯病基因導入現有品種使產生廣幅抗性,是最經濟有效的策略。台稉9號(TK9)為台灣重要的良質米品種,其農藝性狀優良,但不抗白葉枯病。本論文將秈型稻IRBB66(Xa4+xa5+Xa7+xa13+Xa21)的5個抗病基因導入TK9,利用秈稉雜交子代性狀變異大之特性,選出優良子代,期能獲得農藝性狀佳並抗白葉枯病的新品系。為瞭解此雜交組合的子代基因型分離特性,先以10個與Xa基因連鎖的SSR分子標誌,偵測1500株F2的基因型,並計算不同Xa基因的導入率,發現F2的基因型組合呈明顯分離,且堆疊基因數越多,株數越少。進一步估計獲得不同基因型所需之最小種植株數,發現若在90%的信賴區間下,至少獲得一株含5同質Xa基因的F2,至少須種植1628株。接著分析TK9/IRBB66雜交組合的雜種優勢與遺傳力,結果顯示此雜交組合的株高、分蘗數、抽穗期及產量性狀皆具雜種優勢,且這些性狀的遺傳力高於0.9。由於F2的農藝性狀呈明顯分離,需把握早期分離世代,選出農藝性狀優良的品系進行育種。本論文亦比較單粒後裔法與譜系法進行F2- F4的育種,並以株高、分蘗數、莖稈角度、抽穗期、病斑長度及穀粒長寬比為篩選條件,結果證明透過譜系法育種可選出農藝性狀優良子代,單粒後裔法育種則可維持子代性狀的變異,再從這二種方法挑選性狀優秀之子代,期能育出兼具白葉枯病抗性和優良農藝性狀的新品種。

Bacterial blight disease (BBD) is a widespread and destructive disease of rice in irrigated and rainfed environments in Asia. Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) causes bacterial blight disease. The disease can cause 30 to 50% yield loss severely. Chemical management isn't useful to defect bacterial blight, and it's with higher spending. Generally believed that impoting the multiple Xa genes into varieties to produce the broad resistance, so that is the most effective strategy with economic values. TK9 is one of the most popular japonica type rice varieties in Taiwan because of its good plant type, stable yield and excellent grain quality. But it is suscepitible to bacterial blight disease. In this study, markers assisted selection (MAS) strategy was conducted to introgress Xa genes into TK9 to improve its BBD resistance. We chose indica variety, IRBB66 (Xa4, xa5, Xa7, xa13 and Xa21), to be the resistance doner parent. We investigated by taking F2 population with a view to assess the variability, heritability and genetic parameters. We found heritability of lots of traits are high. So we can select plants with excellent traits in early stage. Because the polymorphism traits between TK9 and IRBB66 are height, tiller, heading date, grain length, grain width and yield traits. They are better traits to map genes. So we chose 102 SSR markers averaging in 12 rice chromosomes to analyse 92 F2 . We found one QTL (qHeight-1)controlling height on chromosom 1, one QTL (qhd-1) controlling heading date on chromosome 8, and one QTL (qGL-1). We took 1500 F2 plants to analysis introgressing probabilities and its genetic characteristics in the TK9/IRBB66 population. By using 10 markers linked to Xa genes to select various genotypes, we took 1500 F2 plants to analysis introgressing probabilities and its genetic characteristics in the TK9/IRBB66 population.We found that actual probabities are lower than expected probabilities. Because there are segregations of traits in TK9/IRBB66 population. We took pedigree and single seed descent method for breeding. We selected plants with height, tillers, plant ancle, heading date, lesion, grain shape, and yield traits. We can keep the segregations of the poulation with single seed descent method, and then can select excellent plants by using these two breeding methods. We hope to breed a new variety from pedigree and single seed descent methods.
其他識別: U0005-3101201510164100
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