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Comparative studies on the grain appearance, physicochemical properties and storage quality of domestic superior and imported rice
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Rice is the most widely grown and produced crop in Taiwan. Many new rice varieties are being developed and released with high yield, and high resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, but their eating quality remains to be improved. Eating quality has now become the primary consideration of final rice-eating consumers and breeding programs. The study was carried out to compare grain appearance, physicochemical properties, eating quality and storage quality of 29 domestic superior rice and 6 imported rice, and rice quality traits were also evaluated to find out which will be the major factors to determine eating quality by correlation analysis. The results indicated that milling quality and grain appearance of imported rice were better than domestic rice, including percentage of head rice and percentage of chalky kernels. However, eating quality of domestic rice was superior than imported rice, especially Tainan 16, Kaoshiung 145, Kaoshiung 147, Tainung 74, Taichung 194, and Taichung sen 10. Results of correlation analysis showed that palatability value of milled rice was significantly positive correlated with palatability value by rice taste analyzer, and balance by rice physical property analyzer. Whereas, percentage of head rice, grain length, peak, trough, breakdown, and final viscosity were negative correlated with palatability value of milled rice. Taste value was positive correlated with percentage of head rice and grain shape, but it was negative correlated with whiteness and percentage of chalky kernels. In addition, palatability value detected by rice taste analyzer was positive correlated with whiteness, palatability value of milled rice, and balance by rice physical property analyzer, but negative correlation with peak, trough, breakdown, final viscosity, and hardness by rice physical property analyzer. Storage quality of Taikeng 8, Taikeng 9, and Taoyuan 3 was inferior to other domestic rice, and changes of characters including percentage of water uptake, peak, trough, and final viscosity were obvious during short term storage. Comparative study on rice quality of translucent and chalky kernels in Taikeng 9 and Tainan 11 revealed that cooking and eating qualities of perfect milling rice were superior than chalky one.
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