Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 玉米變異B染色體的特性分析
Characterization of B-chromosome variants in maize
作者: Ying-Ru Feng
關鍵字: B-chromosome variant;fluorescence in situ hybridization;the r-X1 deletion in maize;變異B染色體;螢光原位雜合技術;玉米r-X1缺失
引用: 林耀斌。2002。玉米B染色體的構造變異。碩士論文。台中:國   立中興大學分子生物學研究所。 林煥智。2013。利用五個玉米自交系以cDNA-AFLP技術分離玉   米B染色體轉錄子。碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學農藝學   系研究所。 高國維。2013。實體定位與結構分析四個玉米B染色體專一性   RAPD標誌。碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學農藝學系研究   所。 陳鴻森。1997。玉米第八對染色體長臂的RFLP標誌之實體定位。   碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學分子生物學研究所。 陳彥君。1996。玉米第六條染色體長臂的RFLP標誌   之實體定位。碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學分   子生物學研究所。 陳宏銘。1998。玉米第二對染色體短臂的RFLP標誌   之實體定位。碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學分   子生物學研究所。 彭淑芬。1995。實體定位玉米第十對長臂之RFLP分     子標誌。碩士論文。台中:國立中興大學分子生   物學研究所。 Alfenito, M. R. and J. A. Birchler. 1993. Molecular characterization   of a maize B chromosome centric sequence. Genetics 135:   589-597. Ananiev, E. V., R. L. Phillips, and H. W. Rines. 1998.   Chromosome-specific molecular organization of maize (Zea   mays L.) centromeric regions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:   13073-13078. Battaglia, E. 1964. Cytogenetics of B chromosome. Caryologia 17:   245-299. Becraft, P. W. and M. Freeling. 1992. A plant genetically mosaic for   chromosome 7 monosomy was derived from an r-X1 deletion   line. Maize Genet. Coop. Newsl. 66: 22-23. Blackburn, E. H. 1991. Structure and function of telomeres. Nature   350: 569-572. Blakeslee A. F. and A. G. Avery. 1938. Fifteen-year breeding   records of 2n + 1 types in Datura stramonium. Cooperation in   research. Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 501: 315-351. Bougourd, S. M. and J. S. Parker. 1979. The B-chromosome system   of Alltum schoenoprasum. III. An abrupt change in   B-frequency. Chromosoma 75: 385-392. Carlson, W. R. 1969. Factors affecting preferential fertilization in   maize. Genetics 62: 543-554. Carlson, W. R. 1986. The B chromosome of maize. Critical Reviews   in Plant Sciences 3: 201-226. Carlson, W. R. and R. Roseman. 1992. A new property of the maize   B chromosome. Genetics 131: 211-223. Cheng, Y. M. and B. Y. Lin. 2003. Cloning and characterization of   maize B chromosome sequences derived from microdissection.   Genetics 164: 299-310. Cheng, Y. M. and B. Y. Lin. 2004. Molecular organization of large   fragments in the maize B chromosome: indication of a novel   repeat. Genetics 166: 1947-1961. Cheng, Y. M. 2010. Evolution of the heterochromatic regions on   maize B long arm based on the sequence structure of CL-repeat   variants. Chromosome Res. 5: 605-619. Chilton, M. D. and B. J. McCarthy. 1973. DNA from maize with and   without B chromosomes: a comparative study. Genetics 74:   605-614. Gonzalez-Sanchez, M., E. Gonzalez-Gonzalez, F. Molina, A. M.   Chiavarino, M. Rosato, and M. J. Puertas. 2003. One gene   determines maize B chromosome accumulation by preferential   fertilisation; another gene(s) determines their meiotic loss.   Heredity 90: 122-129. Gotoh, K. 1924. U‥ ber die Chromosomenzahl von Secale cereale L.   Botanical Magazine Tokyo 38: 135–152. Han, F. P., J. C. Lamb, W. C. Yu, Z. Gao, and J. A. Birchler. 2007.   Centromere function and nondisjunction are independent   components of the maize B chromosome accumulation   mechanism. Plant Cell 19: 524-533. Hanson, G. P. 1969. B chromosome stimulated crossing over in   maize. Genetics 63: 601-609. Holmes, D. S. and S. M. Bougourd. 1989. B-chromosome selection   in Allium schoeniiprasum. V. Natural populations. Heredity 63:   83-87. Holmes, D. S. and S. M. Bougourd. 1991. B-chromosome selection   in Allium schoenoprasum. II. Experimental populations.   Heredity 67: 117-122. Jones, R. N. 1995. Tansley review no. 85: B chromosome in plant.   New Phytol. 131: 411-434. Jones, N. and A. Houben. 2003. B chromosome in plants: escapees   from the A chromosome genome? Trends Plant Sci. 8: 417-423. Jones, R. N., W. Viegas and R. Houben. 2008. A century of B   chromosomes in plants: So what? Annals of Botany 167: 1-9. Kaszas, E. and J. A. Birchler. 1996. Misdivision analysis of   centromere structure in maize. EMBO J. 15: 5246-5255. Kato, A., J. C. Lamb, and J. A. Birchler. 2004. Chromosome   painting in maize using repetitive DNA sequences as probes for   somatic chromosome identification. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA   101: 13554-13559. Kuwada, Y. 1915. Ueber die chromosomeenzahl von Zea mays L.   Bot. Mag. Tokyo 29: 83-89. Lamb, J. C., A. Kato, and J. A. Birchler. 2005. Sequences associated   with A chromosome centromeres are present throughout the   maize B chromosome. Chromosoma 113: 337-349. Lamb, J. C., N. C. Riddle, Y. M. Cheng, J. Theuri, and J. A. Brichler.   2007. Localization and transcription of a   retrotransposon-derived element on the maize B chromosome.   Chromosome Res. 15: 383-398. Lin, B. Y. 1979. Two new B-10 translocations involved in the   control of nondisjunction of the B chromosome in maize.   Genetics 92: 931-945. Lin, B. Y. and E. H. Coe, Jr. 1986. Monosomy and trisomy induced   by the r-X1 deletion in maize, and associated effects on   endosperm development. Can. J. Genet. Cytol. 28: 831-834. Lin, B. Y. 1987. Cytological evidence of terminal deficiencies   produced by the r-X1 deletion in maize. Genome 29: 718-721. Lin, B. Y., K. Marquette, and P. Sallee. 1990. Characterization of   deficiencies generated by r-X1 in maize. J. Hered. 81: 359-364. Longley, A. E. 1927. Supernumerary chromosomes in Zea mays. J.   Agric. Res. 35: 769-784. Mochizuki, A. 1960. A note on the B-chromosomes in natural   populations of Aegilops mutica Boiss. In central Turkey. Wheat   Information Service 11: 31. Nagaki, K., J. Song, R. M. Stupar, A. S. Parokonny, Q. Yuan, S.   Ouyang, J. Liu, J. Hsiao, K. M. Jones, R. K. Dawe, C. R. Buell,   and J. Jiang. 2003. Molecular and cytological analyses of large   tracks of centromeric DNA reveal the structure and   evolutionary dynamics of   maize centromeres. Genetics 163: 759-770. Page, B. T., M. K. Wanous, and J. A. Birchler. 2001.   Characterization of a maize chromosome 4 centromeric   sequence: evidence for an evolutionary relationship with the B   chromosome centromere. Genetics 159: 291-302. Peng, S. F., Y. P. Lin, and B. Y. Lin. 2005. Characterization of AFLP   sequences from regions of maize B chromosome defined by 12   B-10 L translocations. Genetics 169: 375-388. Puertas, M. J. 2002. Nature and evolution of B chromosomes in   plants: a non-coding but information-rich part of plant   genomes. Cytogenetic and Genome Research 96: 198–205. Randolph, L. F. 1928. Types of supernumerary chromosomes in   maize. Anat. Rec. 41: 102. Randolph, L. F. 1941. Genetic charactertics of the B chromosomes   in Maize. Genetics 26: 608-631. Rhoades, M. M., E. Dempsey, and A. Ghidoni. 1967. Chromosome   elimination in maize induced by supernumerary B   chromosomes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 57: 1626-1632. Roman, H. 1947. Mitotic nondisjunction in the case of interchanges   involving the B-type chromosome in maize. Genetics 32:   391-409. Roman, H. 1948. Directed fertilization in maize. Proc. Natl. Acad.   Sci. USA 34: 36-42. Saghai-Maroof, M. A., K. M. Soliman, R. Jorgensen, and R. W.   Allard. 1984. Ribosomal DNA spacer length in barley:   Mendelian inheritance, chromosomal location, and population   dynamics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 81: 8014-8018. Simcox, K. D., J. D. Shadley, and D. F. Weber. 1987. Detection of   the time of occurrence of nondisjuction induced by the r-X1   deficiency in Zea mays L. Genome 29: 782-785. Smith-White, S. and C. R. Carter. 1970. The cytology of   Brachycome lineoTiloha. 2. The chromosome species and their   relationships. Chromosoma 30: 129-153. Stark, E. A., I. Connerton, S. T. Bennett, S. R. Barnes, J. S. Parker,   and J. W. Forster. 1996. Molecular analysis of the structure of   the maize B-chromosome. Chromosome Res. 4: 15-23. Theuri, J., T. Phelps-Durr, S. Mathews, and J. Birchler. 2005. A   comparative study of retrotransposons in the centromeric   regions of A and B chromosomes of maize. Cytogenet. Genome   Res. 110: 203–208. Ward, E. J. 1973. The heterochromatic B chromosome of maize: the   segments affecting recombination. Chromosoma 43: 177-186. Watanabe, K., S. Smith-White, and C. R. Carter. 1975. The cytology   of Brachycome lineoTiloha. 5. Chromosome relationships and   phylogeny of the race A cytodemes (n = 2). Chromosoma 52:   383-397. Weber, D. F. 1973. A test of distributive pairing in Zea mays   utilizing doubly monosomic plants. Theor. Appl. Genet. 83:   465-581. Weber, D. F. 1983. Monosomic analysis in diploid crop plants. In:   Cytogenetics of Crop Plants, Edited by M. S. Swaminathan, P.   K. Gupta, and U. Sinha. Macmillan India Limited, New Delhi.   pp. 351-378. Weber, D. F. and L. Chao. 1994. The r-X1 deficiency system induces   nondisjunction in the early embryo in maize. Maydica 39:   29-33. Werner, J. E., R. S. Kota, B. S. Gill, and T. R. Endo. 1992.   Distribution of telomeric repeats and their role in the healing of   broken chromosome ends in Wheat. Genome 35: 844-848. Wilson, E. B. 1907. Note on the chromosome groups of Metapodius      and Banasa. Biological Bulletin XII: 303-313. Zhao, Z-Y. and D. F. Weber. 1988. Analysis of nondisjunction   induced by the r-X1 deficiency during microsporogenesis in   Zea mays L. Genetics 119: 975-980.
B染色體可能在自然條件下發生結構變化,本研究所分析的2種玉米變異B染色體,分別稱為Bta與Btb染色體。以傳統細胞遺傳學觀察發現Bta染色體的形態與B染色體相似,唯遠端異染色質1 (distal heterochromatin 1, DH1)較小;Btb染色體較B染色體短小,沒有明顯的短臂和遠端常染色質(distal euchromatin, DE),且長臂上僅具有2個DH結構。有絲分裂時期的染色體行為觀察說明2個變異B染色體的中節功能均正常。鑑定帶有單價Bta或Btb染色體的植株與L289自交系正反交產生的子代,發現Bta染色體仍保留B染色體在小孢子裡的精核第2次有絲分裂不分離的特性;Btb染色體則缺少此特性。利用3個B染色體專一序列與5個逆轉位子做為螢光原位雜合探針,結果顯示Bta染色體僅Prem-2和Tekay 2個逆轉位子序列的分佈與B染色體不同,而各序列在Btb染色體上皆集中分佈於末端的2個DH。此外,透過7個B染色體專一分子標誌的分析,發現Bta染色體皆具有此7個分子標誌,而Btb染色體缺少位於B染色體上DH2和DH4的分子標誌。本研究依據各試驗結果推論Bta與Btb染色體可能的演變過程。玉米r-X1缺失為1個位於第10對染色體長臂的中間缺失,可使A染色體發生不分離或造成染色體的部分缺失。為了解r-X1缺失對B染色體的影響,以同時帶有r-X1缺失和2個B染色體的玉米植株為母本,與不帶B染色體的植株雜交,鑑定其子代發現3種因r-X1缺失所產生的B染色體衍生物,証實r-X1缺失也可能使B染色體發生形態變化。

Under natural conditions, structural variations of B-chromosomes might be arised. The two maize B-chromosome variants, the main marterials in this study, were designated as Bta and Bta chromosomes, respectively. By using conventional cytogenetic observation, the appearance of the Bta chromosome was similar to that of the B chromosome, but it had a slight distal heterochromatin 1. The Btb chromosome, with no obvious short arm and distal euchromatin, was smaller than the B-chromosome, and it contained only two DH regions. Observations of chromosome behavior during mitosis demonstrated that the centromeres of both Bta and Btb chromosomes were funtional. Identification of progenies, which were generated from reciprocal crosses between plants with univalent Bta or Btb chromosome and L289 inbred, revealed that the Bta chromosome retained nondisjunction at the second pollen mitosis, but the Btb chromosome lost the property. By using three B-chromosome specific sequences and five retrotransposons as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, revealed that only Prem-2 and Tekay displayed different distributions between Bta and B chromosomes. All FISH signals were mainly distributed at the two terminal DH regions of the Btb chromosome. Forthermore, by seven B-chromosome specific molecular markers, all markers were observed on the Bta chromosome, but markers located in DH2 and DH4 were lost on the Btb chromosome. According to the results in this study, the evolution processes of Bta and Btb chromosomes were deduced. The r-X1 deletion in maize is an interstitial deficiency located on the long arm of chromosome 10. It can induced nondisjuction or partial loss of A-chromosomes. To understand the effects of the r-X1 deletion on the B-chromosome, plants carrying the r-X1 deletion and two B-chromosomes were used as pistillate parents to cross plants with no B-chromosome. Identification of the resulting progenies, three B-chromosome variants were found. This result indicated that the r-X1 deletion also can cause structural variation of the B-chromosome.
其他識別: U0005-2301201423515200
Rights: 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務
Appears in Collections:農藝學系

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-103-7100031104-1.pdf3.33 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.