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標題: 玉米變異B染色體的特性分析
Characterization of B-chromosome variants in maize
作者: Ying-Ru Feng
關鍵字: B-chromosome variant;fluorescence in situ hybridization;the r-X1 deletion in maize;變異B染色體;螢光原位雜合技術;玉米r-X1缺失
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B染色體可能在自然條件下發生結構變化,本研究所分析的2種玉米變異B染色體,分別稱為Bta與Btb染色體。以傳統細胞遺傳學觀察發現Bta染色體的形態與B染色體相似,唯遠端異染色質1 (distal heterochromatin 1, DH1)較小;Btb染色體較B染色體短小,沒有明顯的短臂和遠端常染色質(distal euchromatin, DE),且長臂上僅具有2個DH結構。有絲分裂時期的染色體行為觀察說明2個變異B染色體的中節功能均正常。鑑定帶有單價Bta或Btb染色體的植株與L289自交系正反交產生的子代,發現Bta染色體仍保留B染色體在小孢子裡的精核第2次有絲分裂不分離的特性;Btb染色體則缺少此特性。利用3個B染色體專一序列與5個逆轉位子做為螢光原位雜合探針,結果顯示Bta染色體僅Prem-2和Tekay 2個逆轉位子序列的分佈與B染色體不同,而各序列在Btb染色體上皆集中分佈於末端的2個DH。此外,透過7個B染色體專一分子標誌的分析,發現Bta染色體皆具有此7個分子標誌,而Btb染色體缺少位於B染色體上DH2和DH4的分子標誌。本研究依據各試驗結果推論Bta與Btb染色體可能的演變過程。玉米r-X1缺失為1個位於第10對染色體長臂的中間缺失,可使A染色體發生不分離或造成染色體的部分缺失。為了解r-X1缺失對B染色體的影響,以同時帶有r-X1缺失和2個B染色體的玉米植株為母本,與不帶B染色體的植株雜交,鑑定其子代發現3種因r-X1缺失所產生的B染色體衍生物,証實r-X1缺失也可能使B染色體發生形態變化。

Under natural conditions, structural variations of B-chromosomes might be arised. The two maize B-chromosome variants, the main marterials in this study, were designated as Bta and Bta chromosomes, respectively. By using conventional cytogenetic observation, the appearance of the Bta chromosome was similar to that of the B chromosome, but it had a slight distal heterochromatin 1. The Btb chromosome, with no obvious short arm and distal euchromatin, was smaller than the B-chromosome, and it contained only two DH regions. Observations of chromosome behavior during mitosis demonstrated that the centromeres of both Bta and Btb chromosomes were funtional. Identification of progenies, which were generated from reciprocal crosses between plants with univalent Bta or Btb chromosome and L289 inbred, revealed that the Bta chromosome retained nondisjunction at the second pollen mitosis, but the Btb chromosome lost the property. By using three B-chromosome specific sequences and five retrotransposons as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, revealed that only Prem-2 and Tekay displayed different distributions between Bta and B chromosomes. All FISH signals were mainly distributed at the two terminal DH regions of the Btb chromosome. Forthermore, by seven B-chromosome specific molecular markers, all markers were observed on the Bta chromosome, but markers located in DH2 and DH4 were lost on the Btb chromosome. According to the results in this study, the evolution processes of Bta and Btb chromosomes were deduced. The r-X1 deletion in maize is an interstitial deficiency located on the long arm of chromosome 10. It can induced nondisjuction or partial loss of A-chromosomes. To understand the effects of the r-X1 deletion on the B-chromosome, plants carrying the r-X1 deletion and two B-chromosomes were used as pistillate parents to cross plants with no B-chromosome. Identification of the resulting progenies, three B-chromosome variants were found. This result indicated that the r-X1 deletion also can cause structural variation of the B-chromosome.
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