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標題: 秈稻 IR64 誘變庫香氣突變體之篩選與香氣遺傳分析
Screening and genetic analysis of the aroma mutants derived from a mutation pool of IR64 rice variety
作者: Wei-Hao Chen
關鍵字: no;無
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水稻為世界重要的糧食作物,其中香米品種於烹調後能產生特殊的香氣,而不同國家或地區的人們對香米有不同的描述,包含爆米花(popcorn-like)香、芋頭 (taro-like)香、斑蘭 (pandan-like)香或茉莉花(jasmine-like)香等。由於香米受到眾多消費者喜愛,使其在國際市場的價格與競爭力比一般市售米優異,因此提高各地育種者及研究人員對水稻香氣性狀的興趣。IR64A (A01)為本實驗室自水稻 IR64 疊氮化鈉誘變庫於 M5 世代發現的香氣突變體,經遺傳分析與基因定位研究後,認為其香氣屬於單基因隱性遺傳,且位於第 8 對染色體的 badh2為其香氣的主效基因。為了解誘變庫中是否存在其他香氣突變體,可做為未來香米育種的香氣供給親,或可直接命名推廣,自 M10 世代的900 個突變品系,以糙米聞香進行香氣突變體之篩選,從中獲得一系列香氣突變體,依序命名 A02、A03、A04、A06、A07、A08、A09、A12、A13、A14、A15、A16、A18 及 A19,與 IR64A 合併為一套源自 IR64 誘變庫,具有香氣的核心收集系 (core collection)。

香氣突變體 A08 的糙米香氣不亞於 IR64A,且高株粒大;A04 則具有長芒 粒型小且糙米香氣穩定等特徵 建立 IR64/A04 與 IR64/A08、。雜交組合進行香氣遺傳分析;IR64A/A04 及 IR64A/A08 進行香氣等位性測驗,發現兩者的香氣均受單基因隱性遺傳,且 badh2 均為其香氣的主效基因。初步藉由功能性標誌 FMbadh2-E2 (badh2.2)及FMbadh2-E7 (badh2.1)的基因型分析,發現僅有 IR64A 與 A19 於第 7外顯子具有 8 bp 的缺失突變,屬於 badh2.1。由 BADH2 全長基因的重新定序與親緣分析,發現 A04、A08 及其它香氣突變體於第 13 外顯子具有一 C→T 單核苷酸多型性 (SNP, badh2.10),相關分析證實badh2.10 與香氣呈高度相關。功能性標誌 FMbadh2.10 的建立與上述4 個 F2 族群基因型分析的結果顯示,基因型與葉片香氣呈高度相關(R = 0.88),證實 badh2.10 確實能影響 BADH2 蛋白功能,進而影響香氣的產生;而不同的香氣基因型,可能會影響香氣的程度。

Rice is an important food crop. Among rice varieties, aroma rice produced a pleasant and subtle fragrance when cooked. Aroma rice gaining widespread popularity among consumers worldwide, thus the price is much higher than that of non-fragrant rice in international market. This inspires many researchers and plant breeders to conduct genetic analysis and include fragrance as one of the important economic trait rice breeding. In our laboratory, an aroma mutant IR64A (A01) was screened at the M5 generation from the IR64 sodium azide induced mutation pool. Genetic analysis and mapping reveals that the fragrant gene was monogenic recessive inheritance and the badh2 on chromosome 8 was found to be the major gene responsible for fragrance. Fragrance evaluation was conducted on brown rice of 900 mutant lines of IR64 mutation pool at the M10 generation and obtained a series of aroma mutants namely, A02, A03, A04, A06, A07, A08, A09, A12, A13, A14, A15, A16, A18, and A19, as a core collection for fragrance research and breeding

A08 is tall, large grain and with a similar aroma as IR64A while A04 has long awn, small grain and stable aroma characteristics. Genetic analysis between IR64/A04 and IR64/A08 F2 populations found the aroma trait of both A04 and A08 are monogenic recessive inheritance. Besides, allelism test of IR64A/A04 and IR64A/A04 F2 populations showed that badh2 is the major gene. Genotyping by functional markers FMbadh2-E2 (badh2.2) and FMbadh2-E7 (badh2.1) revealed an 8 bp deletion on the exon 7 in IR64A and A19, which belong to badh2.1 genotype. Re-sequencing and phylogenetic analysis also found a C→T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, badh2.10) on the exon 13 in A04, A08 and other aroma mutants, correlation analysis showed badh2.10 is highly correlated to aroma. Establishment of functional markers FMbadh2.10 and genetic analysis of the four F2 populations demonstrated a high correlation between genotype and leaf aroma (R=0.88). This confirmed that badh2.10 affects the function of BADH2 protein hence produce fragrance, and different aroma genotypes may also influence the degree of aroma.
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