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標題: 高爾夫球場草坪除草劑減量施用效果評估及伏速隆之土壤環境流向分析
Evaluation of the effect of herbicide application at reduced rate in golf turf and the fate analysis of flazasulfuron in soil environment
作者: Yao-Hsien Tsai
關鍵字: flazasulfuron;伏速隆
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本研究針對高爾夫球場草坪除草劑種類進行篩選及評估其減量施用效果,利用不同除草劑及濃度,調查草坪草本草之藥害以及草坪雜草控制藥效,以進一步評估減量施用效果。於2012年2、4、6、8及10月分別針對 (百慕達草(bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.)與馬尼拉芝(Manila grass (Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.))草坪草施用伏速隆(flazasulfuron)、合速隆(halosulfuron)、百速隆(pyrazosulfuron)、快克草(quinclorac)及水田推薦用藥本達隆(bentazon),以比較減量施用藥劑之效果,處理濃度分別是推薦用量全量(100%)、67%、50%以及不處理做為對照組。百慕達草只有在較低溫季節,可能出現了些微傷害及黃化,但不足以影響本草生長與品質。馬尼拉芝則在各季節皆未出現明顯的藥害及黃化。此外,五種除草劑對草坪雜草皆能有效控制,處理後三週雜草傷害,會隨著光照與溫度的增加,雜草控制效果明顯上升。在減量施用效果上,發現大多數除草劑於減量至67%用量下與全量(100%)施用效果相同,已能有效控制雜草,結果顯示以伏速隆最具減量施用的潛力。
已無法偵測出伏速隆。高爾夫球場在4月由於降雨頻繁伏速隆殘留十分微量,僅在施藥後3天於10-20 cm土壤層發現約有0.23 ppm伏速隆的殘留,9月在0-10 cm及10-20 cm的土壤層皆有偵測到伏速隆的殘留,且有0-10 cm土層向10-20 cm土層轉移累積的現象。溫室的土壤管柱試驗均為粘質壤土對於伏速隆的吸附性相對較強,但亦有部分會隨水分移動而進入10-20 cm土層。伏速隆為推薦用量相對較少之除草劑,由於球場水池水量相當大,以及排水管道為流動的水,故稀釋作用下水中伏速隆的含量低於偵測極限。本研究另針對伏速隆之化學水解、微生物降解及光降解進行分析,其中以化學水解的影響最大。

In order to select herbicides effective for weed management in grass turfs of the Golf course, with reduced rates, five herbicides were tested and the possibility of herbicide application at reduced rate was also estimated. In 2012, five herbicides including flazasulfuron, halosulfuron, pyrazosulfuron, quinclorac and bentazon, at the rates of 100%, 67% and 50% of their recommended rate were applied on two grassturf, i.e., Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.), and Manila grass (Zoysia matrella (L.) Merr.), and these experimental results showed that no toxic effect of tested herbicides on Manila grass and only a slight injury appeared on Bermuda grass. At the recommended rates of 5 herbicides, weeds in two grassturfs were effectively controlled 3 weeks after treatment. In general, the application rate of herbicide reduced to 67% of the recommended rate still kept the effect similar to that of the full rate. Flazasulfuron residue analysis after application showed that most of the flazasulfuron was absorbed by shoot of Bermuda grass and existed in two soil layers. Due to the frequent mowing in Glof course, flazasulfuron in Bermuda grass was rapidly left away from this turf grass. In addition, the frequent rainfall after herbicide application lead to the fast dissipation of flazasulfuron, only 0.23 ppm flazasulfuron was found in 10-20 cm soil layer 3 days after treatment. Detection of flazasulfuron in 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layer in September in golf court showed that flazasulfuron leached from 0-10 cm soil layer to 10-20 cm soil layer. On the other hand, soil column experiment in greenhouse confirmed that a part of flazasulfuron move downward with water. Field assessment found that there was no flazasulfuron in pond and water drainage holes beside the experimental plots in golf court, which probably resulted from the low-dosage of flazasulfuron applied and water dilution. Exploration of the fate of flazasulfuron revealed that chemical hydrolysis, microbial degradation and photolysis are able to degrade flazasulfuron, especially the chemical hydrolysis.
其他識別: U0005-1203201521490900
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