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Using 1D and 2D models to simulate the pollen-mediate gene flow (PMGF) between GM Brassica napus and Brassica rapa: a case study in Wufeng Districty, Taichung City
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Allainguillaume. 2003. Hybridization between Brassica napus and B. rapa on a national scale in the United Kingdom. Science 302: 457− 459.||摘要:||
由於基因改造作物(genetically modified crop, GM crop)在全球種植面積持續的增加，衍生了許多相關議題，其中尤以GM作物的共存是當前各國所關切的重要議題之一。全球四大GM作物之一的油菜可以藉由花粉式基因流動(pollen mediated gene flow, PMGF)將其帶有的轉基因導入non-GM栽培種油菜或是近源種之作物，而台灣主要種植的為國外GM油菜之近源種小油菜，因此若引進國外之GM油菜時，台灣在地之小油菜可能會受其汙染。在GM油菜共存的研究中主要以隔離距離作為主要的共存措施，因此希望以不同環境下的田間試驗結果建構GM油菜最適當的隔離距離。
本研究於2013年在台灣霧峰地區進行三期作的田間試驗，試驗以國外引進之大油菜作為花粉貢獻親，以台灣在地之小油菜作為花粉接受親，並藉由兩者雜交後代葉片外形作為判斷雜交與否的依據。研究發現異交率在距離0.35 m處最高為8.52%，而在最遠的距離12.95 m處最高之異交率為0.81%，且異交率隨著距離的增加而遞減。探討風向對異交的影響之結果顯示，卡方獨立性測驗的結果為不顯著(P value＞0.05)，表示風向對異交並無顯著的影響。一維模式與二維模式中，配適結果及預測能力最佳的模式分別為花粉密度模式及IDF-2Dt模式，但在尾部的異交率仍有低估的問題。在模式推薦之最適隔離距離的結果中，使用花粉密度模式並在強制標示門檻值為0.9%時，所推薦之隔離距離為1.13 m，如使用IDF-2Dt模式同樣在強制標示門檻值為0.9%時，推薦之隔離距離則為1.65 m。本研究的結果將可提供台灣未來制定GM油菜共存政策的依據，並且提供未來大油菜與小油菜共存相關研究的方向。
The acreage of genetically modified (GM) crop increase continuously in the world. Therefore, numerious issues about the GM crop were derived. The issue of coexistence between the GM and non-GM crop was highly concerned in many countries. Oilseed rape, the top four GM crops in the word, may transfer the transgene to the non-GM oilseed rape or relative species by pollen mediate gene flow (PMGF). In Taiwan, the Brassica rapa L. a oilseed rape's relative species, is the main interseason crop for green manure and vegetable. Then, if GM oilseed rape cultivated in Taiwan, it may result in hybridization between oilseed rape and local B. rapa. In the research of coexistence between GM and non-GM oilseed rape, isolation distance was considered as the main coexistence measure. It was expected to develop the most appropriate isolation distance for the GM oilseed rape by the experiment results in different environments.
In this study, the experiments were conducted to collect the cross-pollination (CP) data at Wufeng area during three crop seasons. Pollen donor plant was the oilseed rape variety imported from the foreign country, and the local B. rapa variety was used as pollen recipient. The hybridization behaviour between oilseed rape and B. rapa is distinguished by the leaf shape of the hybrid offspring. At an isolation distance of 0.35 m, the highest CP rate is 8.52%, and the highest CP rate is 0.81% at the longest isolation distance of 12.95 m. The CP rate declined with the isolation distance increasing. The chi-square test for independence showed that there isn't significant relationship between wind direction and distribution of CP (P value＞0.05). The fitted models in 1D and 2D with the best predictive ability are the pollen density model and the IDF-2Dt model respectively. Howevere, both models still underestimated the tail of CP rate. When the labeling threshold was set at 0.9%, the recommended isolation distance predicted by the pollen density model and IDF-2Dt model were 1.13 m and 1.65 m, respectively. There results can be the reference of drawing the coexistence specification for the GM oilseed rape and provide the research direction for the future work.
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