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The Study on implementing Crop Insurance in Taiwan
|關鍵字:||稻作保險;保險費率;稻作被害率;Crop Insurance;Insurance Premium Rate;Crop Damaged Rate||引用:||林啟淵，2001，台灣不同稻作保險方案之經濟分析-以雲林縣稻作生產區為例，農業經濟叢刊，6:2，235-253。 陳建宏，2011，日本「農業災害補償制度」概要，主要國家農業政策法規與經濟動態，行政院農業委員會網站，http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?catid=59。 程家慶，1995，臺灣稻作災害純保險費率之研究，國立中興大學農業經濟研究所碩士論文。 黃琮琪、王惠正，2011，加拿大農業保險概要，主要國家農業政策法規與經濟動態，行政院農業委員會網站，http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?catid=59。 楊明憲，2011，國外實施各類型農業保險經驗之探究，主要國家農業政策法規與經濟動態，行政院農業委員會網站，http://www.coa.gov.tw/view.php?catid=59。 農林水產省，2014，農業災害補償制度，日本農林水產省網頁，http://www.maff.go.jp/j/keiei/hoken/saigai_hosyo/。 鄭慧愔，1999，台灣稻作保險之經濟分析，國立中正大學國際經濟研究所碩士論文。 簡宣博，1985，台灣實施水稻收穫保險之研究，國立中興大學農業經濟研究所。||摘要:||
二 若依據日本一筆單位投保方式 依照受害比例各別計算每公頃保險費，並考慮政府補助保費情況如下所示：
(二)由政府部分負擔保險費補貼 50%且需符合 WTO 農業協定規範，並可從主要農業縣開始試辦
(三)保險費率試算可依據 20 年稻作被害率訂定 但須考量極端被害率，，並且每 3 年需重新討論與調整。
六、保險費率試算建議根據過去歷年的被害率訂定，並且每 3 年需重新討論與調整。
The purpose of this study is to find out a feasible implementation framework for rice insurance program in Taiwan. The major purposes of this study are as follows:
1. The set up of a rice insurance program to replace current guaranteed rice purchase program and assistance program of agricultural natural disaster in order to lessen the burdens of government and offer guarantees to farmers when production or income is on crisis.
2. Learning from the crop insurance programs implemented in Japan, insurance premium per hectare is calculated respectively according to damage ratio that also takes conditions of the government's premium subsidies into consideration such as followings:
(1) The payment of insurance claims will begin by subsidizing 70% of benchmark yields when base output damage ratio reaches 30%, as the premium amount will be NT$82,239 and the annual rate per hectare will be NT$1,752. If the government subsidizes 40% of the rate during the first crop season, rate subsidy will be NT$701. If the government subsidizes 60% of the rate during the second crop season, the rate subsidy will be NT$1,051.
(2) The payment of insurance claims will begin by subsidizing 60% of benchmark yields when base output damage ratio reaches 40%, as the premium amount will be NT$70,491 and the annual rate per hectare will be NT$1,501. If the government subsidizes 40% of the rate during the first crop season, rate subsidy will be NT$600. If the government subsidizes 60% of the rate during the second crop season, the rate subsidy will be NT$901.
(3) The payment of insurance claims will begin by subsidizing 50% of benchmark yields when base output damage ratio reaches 50%, as the premium amount will be NT$58,742 and the annual rate per hectare will be NT$1,251. If the government subsidizes 40% of the rate during the first crop season, rate subsidy will be NT$500. If the government subsidizes 60% of the premium during the second crop season, the rate subsidy will be NT$751.
3. Feasible measures the government must involve:
(1) The design of rice insurance programs will only be feasible if it is planned under systematic planning and endorsed by the central government and supported by the local governments' active participation.
(2) The government co-payment policy is characterized by subsidizing 50% of the rate that shall conform to the rules by the WTO Agreement on Agriculture and the main agricultural counties can begin the pilot program.
(3) The calculation of insurance rate can be based on 20-year rate of damage to rice, while consideration should also be given to rate of extreme damage that shall be re-discussed and re-adjusted every three years.
(4) Authorities can work with financial institutions or insurance companies to launch crop insurance for rice or with National Farmers' Association by authorizing a chartered crop insurance business.
(5) In view of principles of loss sharing and rate subsidy offered by the government, farmers need mandatory insurance.
Policy suggestions can be given below:
1. It is suggested that range of coverage for rice insurance is limited to pure risks resulting form natural causes damages such as climate and pest.
2. It is suggested to adopt valuation under insurance according to 70% of the long-term average yield to be the coverage by adopting the underwriting method of giving no compensation for 30% damage of total yields and one-time underwriting on risks for two season crops of rice in a year to simplify underwriting process and can avoid moral hazard and adverse selection.
3. For the design of rice insurance systems, the central government will draw up insurance policy of rice and make a partial payment of the insurance rates associated with active steps taken by local governments are required for effective implementation.
4. The study suggests that government should abolish policies on the guaranteed rice purchase and the assistant program of agricultural natural disaster and offers 50~80% of rice yield and casualty loss premium, and the main agricultural counties in Taiwan can begin the pilot program before being modified.
5. According to past experience, most of non-governmental insurance companies in Taiwan show no willingness to design crop insurance policies, and it is suggested that the National Farmers' Associations in Taiwan to be authorized a chartered insurance business for crops.
6. It is suggested that setting insurance rate calculation should be based on rates of damage over historical years and re-discussion and re-adjustment are necessary every three years.
|Appears in Collections:||應用經濟學系|
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