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標題: Immunomodulatory effects of steam distillation essential oil of Coleus amboinicus inhalation in normal and asthmatic mice
作者: Yin-Jie Wei
關鍵字: allergic asthma;Coleus amboinicus;immune cells;inhalation;OVA-sensitization and challenge;steam distillation essential oils;Th1/Th2 cytokines;過敏性氣喘;道手香;免疫細胞;吸入;OVA 致敏及刺激;水蒸餾精油;Th1/Th2 細胞激素
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植物精油為植物二級代謝產物的複雜混合物,可能具有抗過敏、抗發炎及抗癌功效。目前有關植物水蒸餾精油之免疫調節作用尚無完整研究,因此本研究選取金錢薄荷(Glechoma hederacea) 、金盞花(Calendula officinalis) 、香茅(Cymbopogon nardus )、土肉桂(Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira.) 葉、迷迭香(Rosmarinus officinalis) 及道手香(Coleus amboinicus Lour.) 六種具潛力植物為材料,製備其水蒸餾精油進行免疫調節之研究。
先於體外(in vitro)試驗進行免疫調節功能評估,以調節小鼠初代脾臟細胞Th1/Th2 細胞激素分泌傾向、初代腹腔巨噬細胞促/抗發炎細胞激素分泌變化及初代肺臟肥大細胞之安定性試驗進行評估,結果發現道手香水蒸餾精油添加於脾臟細胞使其細胞激素分泌傾向於抗發炎之Th2 型免疫反應、於腹腔巨噬細胞可抑制發炎反應且對於肥大細胞去顆粒化之安定性較佳,顯示道手香水蒸餾精油具抗發炎及抗過敏之潛力,因此篩選出道手香水蒸餾精油,進行動物實驗。
於動物體內試驗,以吸入介入方式探討其對正常小鼠及OVA 致敏及刺激的氣喘小鼠免疫調節之影響。結果顯示,短暫吸入道手香水蒸餾精油,對正常小鼠於肺氣管內變化,於脾臟細胞Th1/Th2 細胞激素分泌及增生,於血清中非特異抗體變化,於肺臟肥大細胞去顆粒化作用,皆無顯著影響,但於腹腔巨噬細胞,則可降低IL-1β/IL-10 分泌比值,具抗發炎之效果。然而吸入高劑量(6 mg/l)道手香水蒸餾精油雖會減少小鼠肺氣管內蛋白質含量,卻降低腎臟臟器重量,為避免副作用,因此選用低劑量(0.3 mg/l)及中劑量(1.2 mg/l)道手香水蒸餾精油,進行氣喘小鼠體內試驗。顯示短暫吸入道手香水蒸餾精油後,對OVA 致敏及刺激的氣喘小鼠,於肺氣管內可降低嗜伊紅細胞浸潤、減少發炎媒介物產生,於腹腔巨噬巨細胞可抑制發炎反應,於血清內可增加OVA 特異性IgG2a/IgE 抗體比值分泌,及增加肺臟肥大細胞安定性等。綜合本研究結果證實吸入道手香水蒸餾精油噴霧具有改善過敏性氣喘之作用。

Essential oils are a complex mixture of plant secondary metabolites that may have anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer effects. However, immunodualtory functions of steam distillation essential oils from plants remain unclear. Therefore, six potential plants including Glechoma hederacea, Calendula officinalis,Cymbopogon nardus, leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum Kanehira., Rosmarinus officinali and Coleus amboinicus Lour. were selected to extract their steam distillation essential oils for immunomodulatory study.
First, effects of these essential oils on immunodualtory functions in vitro were evaluated by observing Th1/Th2 cytokines produced by primary splenocytes, pro- and
anti-inflammatory cytokine secretions by peritoneal macrophages and the stability test to the degranulation of mast cells from BALB/c mice. The results showed that steam distillation essential oil of Coleus amboinicus among six essential oils had Th2-skewed but anti-immunodualtory responses to splenocytes, anti-immunodualtory effects on peritoneal macrophages and the better stability to the degranulation of mast cells. Thus,the essential oil was selected to perform animal study for its potential antiimmunodualtory and anti-allergic effects in vitro.
Next, the potential essential oil with anti-immunodualtory and anti-allergic functions was further selected to administer to normal and ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized and challenged BALB/c mice using inhalation intervention in vivo. In normal mice, the results showed that there were no significant differences among Th1/Th2 cytokine secretions and the profileration of splenocytes, no-specific antibodies in the serum and the degranulation of mast cells after inhalation intervention. However, IL-1β/IL-10 secretion ratios by peritoneal macrophages decreased, exhibiting anti- immunodualtory effects. Although high dose (6 mg/l) inhalation of Coleus amboinicus essential oil reduced protein contents in the trachea, the weight of the kidney also decreased. To avoid side effects, low (0.3 mg/l) and medium (1.2 mg/l) doses of Coleus amboinicus essential oil were further selected to treat OVA-sensitized and challenged mice. The results showed that inhalation intervention using Coleus amboinicus essential oil reduced eosinophilia infiltration and inflammatory mediators in the trachea, inhibited inflammatory reactions by macrophages, increased OVA-specific IgG2a/IgE antibody ratio secretions in the serum and stabilized mast cells degranulation in the lung. Overall,our results evidenced that inhalation intervention using Coleus amboinicus essential oil improved allergic asthma.
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