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標題: Analysis of lipophilic compounds of tea coated on the surface of clay teapots
作者: 廖子慧
Zhi-Hui Liao
關鍵字: 泥質壺;烏龍茶;烏龍老茶;脂肪酸;oolong tea;old oolong tea;glay teapot;fatty acid
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茶,是中國傳統的飲品,更是中國每年大量出口的產品。茶壺,用以突顯茶的香氣、色澤與滋味。在中國文化中茶壺的材質主要為泥質,其中以朱泥最為著名,而養壺在中國飲茶文化中是獨具特色的一門藝術。養壺,顧名思義是壺的保養,透過經年累月的沖泡使得壺表面附著上一層光亮物質;使茶壺擁有明亮的光澤。然而養壺所累積的光亮物質的成分、來源、對人體的利弊,卻無從而知。本篇研究以烏龍茶及烏龍老茶進行養壺實驗,並利用GC-MS去分析壺表面之附著物成分,同時分析茶壺表面中主要之附著物來源且觀察主要物質在茶的製程中是否有所改變。研究結果發現,主要附著於茶壺表面物質為長碳氫鏈之化學物質,其中以脂肪酸中的棕櫚酸(Palmitic acid)、硬脂酸(Stearic acid)為最主要成分。在製茶的過程中脂肪酸的比例也會有所改變,茶菁中以次亞麻油酸(Linolenic acid)最高、其次為亞麻油酸(Linoleic acid)而後為棕櫚酸及油酸;新鮮烏龍茶葉則以次亞麻油酸為主,其次為亞麻油酸及棕櫚酸。而老茶則以棕櫚酸為主,其次為次亞麻油酸及亞麻油酸。在茶湯中脂肪酸之組成上,不論在老茶還是新鮮烏龍茶都是以棕櫚酸為主,硬脂酸次之。利用茶湯煮沸後收取其水蒸氣分析發現,不論是新鮮烏龍茶或老茶其脂肪酸組成與壺表面相同。綜合上述實驗結果解釋了長久以來人們養壺時,壺面所附著之成分為脂肪酸,且透過一系列實驗去了解脂肪酸在茶的製程與儲放的過程中之改變;以提供製茶與儲放方法之調整與改良之科學依據。

Tea, a traditional drink, is a major export product in Chinese every year. Teapot is used to elevate the aroma, color and taste of tea. The main material for Chinese teapot is clay, and the Zhuni is the most famous material for teapot. 'Yang Hu' means teapot maintenance which the surface of a teapot has been coated with a bright layer after using for a long time. However, the constituents of the bright layer are still unknown. In this research, teapots were used to prepare oolong tea and old oolong tea (old tea), and the bright coating layer on teapots was analyzed by GC-MS. Based on GC-MS analysis, the coating constituents on the teapot surface were mainly fatty acids, particularly palmitic acid and stearic acid. In order to find the source of these fatty acids, fatty acid compositions of tea leaf, infusion and vapor were analyzed by GC. The proportion of fatty acids varies during the process of manufacturing tea. The most abundant fatty acid in fresh tea leaf is linolenic acid, and the second one is linoleic acid. In tea leaf, the most abundant fatty acid is palmitic acid, followed by linolenic acid and stearic acid. In old tea leaf, the most abundant fatty acid is palmitic acid, followed by linolenic acid and linoleic acid. The main fatty acids in tea infusion of both old tea and oolong tea are palmitic acid. The same constituents of the bright coating layer on the surface of teapots seemed to be vaporized from infusions of old tea and oolong tea. To understand the change of fatty acid composition during different stages of manufacturing process can improve the process and storage of tea.
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