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Integration of Multiple-Description Iterative Coding and Inter-Block Spread Spectrum in Image Watermarking System
|關鍵字:||影像浮水印;Image watermark;直序展頻;跳頻展頻;跨方塊;多路徑遞迴編解碼;多路徑純量量化;Direct sequence spread spectrum;Frequency hop spread spectrum;Inter-block;Multiple descriptions iterative coding;Multiple description scalar quantization||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| I. J. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton and T. Shamoon, "Secure spread spectrum watermarking for multimedia,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 1673-1687, Dec. 1997.  I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and A. L. McKellips, “Watermarking as communications with side information,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1127-1141, Jul. 1999.  J. R. Hernandez, M. Amado, and F. Perez-Gonzalez, “DCT-domain watermarking techniques for still images: detector performance analysis and a new structure,” IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 55-68, Jan. 2000.  Q. Cheng and T. S. Huang, “An additive approach to transform-domain information hiding and optimum detection structure,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 273-284, Sept. 2001.  H. S. 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Liao and C.-H. Hsu, “Inter-block direct-sequence and frequency-hop spread spectrum image watermarks,” International Journal of Innovative Computing, Information and Control, accepted for publication.  Y.-F. Hsia and J.-R. Liao, “Multiple-description iterative coding image watermarking,” Digital Signal Processing, accepted for publication.||摘要:||
嵌入多重浮水印是增加強健影像浮水印的一個方法。因為影像的容量通常是非常有限的，嵌入多重浮水印，嚴格地限制浮水印的大小。多路徑編解碼透過在傳輸頻帶寬和誤碼率之間作取捨，是解決上述問題的一好選擇。傳統上，多路徑編解碼是被考慮在開關通到，在那裡不會被誤碼毀損，但是被偶爾的連接中斷，如遺失封包。為了應用多路徑編解碼在影像浮水印，我們需要多路徑編解碼對於雜訊通道的形式以取代開關通道。本論文，為了對抗誤碼在影像浮水印裏，我們提出加遞迴編解碼進多路徑。我們稱這個方法為多路徑遞迴編解碼(MDIC)影像浮水印。我們在六張影像上測試了我們的系統。平均，誤碼直到我們壓縮了圖像在JPEG上到PSNR 36.97 dB才發生。我們認為，MDIC對於影像浮水印是一個非常好增加強健的方法。
要學習上述二個論點，我們開發三種影像浮水印演算法。他們叫「Intra-block FHSS」，「Inter-block DSSS (IDSSS)」和「Inter-block FHSS (IFHSS)」。這三個方法和原始的DSSS或者「Intra-block DSSS」透過他們被各式各樣的浮水印攻擊做比較。從實驗結果，我們有以下發現。「Inter-block」技術在對抗所有攻擊，表現較好。對於濾波和量化攻擊，IDSSS浮水印表現較好。對於幾何失真攻擊，IFHSS浮水印表現較好。為了善加利用從這二種不同方法得到的優點，我們結合IDSSS和IFHSS成為單一浮水印系統，稱為Inter-Block Combined (IBC)系統，並且測試它。結果顯示，IBC可抵抗寬廣範圍的浮水印攻擊。
To embed the multiple watermarks is a way to increase robustness in image watermark. The limitation of embedding multiple watermarks is that the limited capacity of an image severely limits the size of the watermark. Multiple-description coding is a good candidate to solve this limitation by trading off between transmission bandwidth and bit error rate. Traditionally, multiple-description coding is considered in on-off channels where channels are not marred by bit errors but occasional connection outages such as dropped packets. To apply multiple-description coding in image watermarking, we need a form of multiple-description coding for noisy channels instead of on-off channels. In this thesis, we propose to add iterative coding in multiple descriptions in order to combat bit errors in image watermarking. We call this method multiple-description iterative coding (MDIC) image watermarking. We tested our system on six images. On average, bit error did not happen until we compressed the image in JPEG to PSNR 36.97 dB. We concluded that MDIC was a very good way to increase robustness for image watermarking.
One of the most popular watermark embedding methods is the direct sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) method. The original DSSS technique divides the image into NxN blocks. These blocks are transformed by discrete cosine transform (DCT). Then, the pseudo-noise (PN) sequences are embedded in selected DCT coefficients within the blocks. In this thesis we explore another two aspects in spread spectrum DCT-based watermarks that are yet unexplored in previous researches. The first aspect is what we called “inter-block” method. In previous DSSS watermark algorithms, the PN sequence from one input bit is embedded in one block. We called this approach “intra-block”. On the other hand, we can embed the PN sequence into several different blocks. Thus, we called it “inter-block” method. The rationale for this “inter-block” approach is that it spreads the same bit into a wider region in the image. This wider spreading may be beneficial in watermark counter-attack. The second aspect is the use of frequency-hop spread spectrum (FHSS). Previous researches indicated that FHSS performed better than DSSS in certain channel condition but FHSS has only been used in audio watermarks. Therefore, applying FHSS watermarks in images is worth investigating.
To study the above two aspects, we developed three image watermark algorithms. They are called “intra-block FHSS”, “Inter-block DSSS (IDSSS)” and “Inter-block FHSS (IFHSS)”. These three methods and the original DSSS or “intra-block DSSS” were compared by subjecting them to various watermark attacks. From the experiments, we have the following findings. “Inter-block” techniques perform better against all attacks. For filtering and quantization attacks, IDSSS watermarks performed better. For geometric distortion attacks, IFHSS watermarks performed better. In order to utilize the advantages from these two different approaches, we combined IDSSS and IFHSS into a single watermark system, called Inter-Block Combined (IBC) system, and tested it. The results showed that the IBC can resist a broad range of watermark attacks.
Finally, we combined the above two systems, MDIC and IBC, together to construct a whole new architecture, called combined MDIC or CMDIC watermarking system. The experimental results showed that CMDIC can defend a wider scope of watermarking attacks.
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