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標題: Analyses of brown rice oil body proteins and Aquilaria sinensis seed composition
作者: 陳大晃
Da-Huang Chen
關鍵字: 糊粉層;油體鈣蛋白;胚芽;油體膜蛋白;稻米種子油體;沉香屬;蛋白體;油體;含油種子;油酸;Aleurone layer;Caleosin;Embryo;Oleosin;Rice seed oil bodies;Aquilaria;Protein body;Oil body;Oily seed;Oleic acid
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Nishimura, Direct interaction between glyoxysomes and lipid bodies in cotyledons of the Arabidopsis thaliana ped1 mutant, Protoplasma, 218 (2001) 83-94. [22] P.L. Jiang, J.C. Chen, S.T. Chiu, J.T. Tzen, Stable oil bodies sheltered by a unique caleosin in cycad megagametophytes, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 47 (2009) 1009-1016. [23] A.M. Weissman, Themes and variations on ubiquitylation, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 2 (2001) 169-178. [24] E.S. Hsiao, J.T. Tzen, Ubiquitination of oleosin-H and caleosin in sesame oil bodies after seed germination, Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, 49 (2011) 77-81. [25] S. Takahashi, T. Katagiri, K. Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K. Shinozaki, An Arabidopsis gene encoding a Ca2+-binding protein is induced by abscisic acid during dehydration, Plant and Cell Physiology, 41 (2000) 898-903. [26] Z. Purkrtova, C. Le Bon, B. Kralova, M.H. Ropers, M. Anton, T. Chardot, Caleosin of Arabidopsis thaliana: effect of calcium on functional and structural properties, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56 (2008) 11217-11224. [27] T.L. Holdaway-Clarke, J.A. Feijo, G.R. Hackett, J.G. Kunkel, P.K. Hepler, Pollen tube growth and the intracellular cytosolic calcium gradient oscillate in phase while extracellular calcium influx is delayed, Plant Cell, 9 (1997) 1999-2010. [28] J.T. Tzen, C.C. Peng, D.J. Cheng, E.C. Chen, J.M. Chiu, A new method for seed oil body purification and examination of oil body integrity following germination, Journal of Biochemistry, 121 (1997) 762-768. [29] K. Kamachi, T. Yamaya, T. Hayakawa, T. Mae, K. Ojima, Vascular bundlespecific localization of cytosolic glutamine synthetase in rice leaves, Plant Physiology, 99 (1992) 1481-1486. CHAPTER 2 [1] H.Q. Chen, J.H. Wei, J.S. Yang, Z. Zhang, Y. Yang, Z.H. Gao, C. Sui, B. Gong, Chemical constituents of agarwood originating from the endemic genus Aquilaria plants, Chemistry and Biodiversity, 9 (2012) 236-250. [2] Y. Okudera, M. Ito, Production of agarwood fragrant constituents in Aquilaria calli and cell suspension cultures, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 26 (2009) 307–315. [3] M. Ito, Studies on perilla, agarwood, and cinnamon through a combination of fieldwork and laboratory work, Journal of Natural Medicines, 62 (2008) 387-395. [4] P. Tamuli, P. Boruah, S.C. Nath, P. Leclercq, Essential oil of eaglewood tree: a product of pathogenesis, Journal of Essential Oil Research, 17 (2005) 601-604. [5] H.F. Dai, J. Liu, Z. Han, Y.B.Zeng, H. Wang, W.L. Mei, Two new 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones from Chinese eaglewood , Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, 12 (2010)134-137. [6] IUCN, The 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Gland, Switzerland, (2000). [7] E.S.L. Hsiao, J.T.C. 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[12] S.S.K.Tai, L.S.H.Wu, E.C.F. Chen, J.T.C. Tzen, Molecular cloning of 11S globulin and 2S albumin, the two major seed storage proteins in sesame, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 47 (1999) 4932-4938. [13] J.T.C.Tzen, C.C.Peng, D.J.Cheng, E.C.F.Chen, J.M.H.Chiu, A new method for seed oil body purification and examination of oil body integrity following germination, The Journal of Biochemistry, 121(1997) 762-768. [14] E.S.L. Hsiao, L.J. Lin, F.Y. Li, M.M.C. Wang, M.Y. Liao, J.T.C. Tzen, Gene families encoding isoforms of two major sesame seed storage proteins, 11S globulin and 2S albumin, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 54 (2006) 9544–9550. [15] AOCS official method Ce-1b-89, Fatty acid composition by GLC: Marine oils, Champaign IL, (1992). [16] C.C.Peng , J.T.C.Tzen, Analyses of the three essential constituents of oil bodies in developing sesame seeds , Plant and Cell Physiology, 39 (1998) 35-42. [17] S.Teres, G. Barcelo-Coblijn, M. Benet, R. Alvarez, R. 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種子不只是植物繁延與散播下一代的重要工具,對人類來說它也是最主要的熱量和蛋白質來源,包括我們的主食稻米以及餐桌上常見的食物玉米和製作麵粉的原料小麥都是植物的種子。我們烹煮用的食用油也大部份來自植物的種子,包括:大豆、芝麻、花生以及葵花籽。如果能更清楚的知道這些種子的組成成分,會幫助於我們以更科學方式攝取到所需的營養。因此我在此論文中分別探討了稻米油體蛋白的分佈情形及尚未被廣泛運用的沉香種子。本研究發現存在胚芽和糊粉層中的兩個油體膜蛋白是由相同的基因所編碼的蛋白質(BAF12898.1和BAF15387.1分別為油體膜蛋白H型和油體膜蛋白L型)。相對於油體膜蛋白,油體鈣蛋白(caleosin)只存在胚芽中,在那些從糊粉層中純化出的油體中並没有發現油體鈣蛋白。水稻的油體鈣蛋白和其它已知的單子葉植物的油體鈣蛋白相似,這些單子葉植物油體鈣蛋白的N端都會比雙子葉植物油體鈣蛋白多出一段序列。新鮮的沉香種子含有:44.4%的水分、24.9%的粗脂肪、16.7%的碳水化合物、10.3%的粗纖維、2.4%的粗蛋白質以及1.3%的灰分。在電子顯微鏡下能觀察到細胞內兩個主要的胞器,包括大量的油體和比較大顆的蛋白體。蛋白體可能由水溶性的2S白蛋白和不水溶的11S球蛋白等貯存蛋白所組成的。據推測油體應該是以油體膜蛋白和油體鈣蛋白將貯存的大量脂質包成囊狀。在油體內所貯存的脂質主要是中性脂質 (>90%三酸甘油酯和~5%雙酸甘油酯)。從中性脂質所釋出的脂肪酸有大量的不飽和脂肪酸其中有接近80%的油酸。此論文的研究結果佐證了胚芽米比精製白米營養的論點,並提出沉香種子應可用來提煉植物油的新訊息。

The seeds are used to distribute new plants to areas away from the parent plant, also are the dominant source of human calories and protein, including our common food of rice, corn and wheat. Most of cooking oil consists of edible vegetable oils derived from soybean, sesame, peanuts and sunflower seeds. If we more understand the composition of these seeds, help us to be more scientific intake of nutrients required. So, I want to indicate the distribution of rice oil body protein and the composition of Aquilaria seed.I find the oleosin in the embryo and those in the aleurone layer were identical proteins encoded by the same genes (BAF12898.1 and BAF15387.1 for oleosin-H and oleosin-L, respectively). In contrast, one caleosin was found in oil bodies isolated from the embryo but not those isolated from the aleurone layer. Similar to other known monocot caleosins, the rice caleosin possesses an N-terminal appendix that is absent in dicotyledonous caleosins. Proximate composition of fresh Aquilaria seeds was analyzed as 44.4% moisture, 24.9% crude lipid, 16.7% carbohydrate, 10.3% crude fiber, 2.4% crude protein, and 1.3% ash. Two major subcellular organelles, abundant oil bodies and large protein bodies, were observed in electron microscopy. Protein bodies are possibly composed of soluble 2S albumin and insoluble 11S globulin storage proteins. Oil bodies presumably encapsulate abundant storage lipids with oleosin and caleosin. The storage lipids in oil bodies were mainly neutral lipids (>90% triacylglycerols and ~5% diacylglycerols). Fatty acids released from these neutral lipids were highly unsaturated with approximately 80% of oleic acid. The results of this thesis indicated embryo rice nutritious than refined rice and Aquilaria seed is a new source of vegetable food oil.
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