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標題: The changes of properties and earthworm growth in vermicomposting process with different organic wastes
作者: Ming-Chieh Lin
關鍵字: Organic waste;Composting;Earthworm;Vermicomposting;Growth;Reproduction;有機廢棄物;堆肥化;蚯蚓;蚓糞堆肥化;生長;生殖
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Converting organic wastes into high quality composts by composting has resource recycling benefits, and vermicomposting and thernopholic aerobic composting are commonly used. However, previous studies usually compare two types of composting with different organic wastes. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare of compost and vermicompost with the same organic wastes after two weeks pre-composting, measuring the changes properties;(2) evaluate the growth and reproduction of earthworms and nutrient contents of vermicomposts are affected by three different organic wastes. Eisenia fetida is used to in the experiments. Three experiments was conducted in this study. Mushroom wastes mixed with pig manure (50 % : 50 %, w/w) and did two-week pre-composting , then conducted composting or vermicomposting to investigate the properties of mixed materials at the 0, 14th, and 69th days and the maturity of final products. Results showed that the organic matter and organic carbon contents decreased due to the decomposition by microorganisms and/or earthworms, while EC, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, copper, zinc and lead contents increased due to concentrated effects. Vermiconpost had lower nutrients than compost, however, it is less likely to cause the adversely risk on crop growth due to lower EC and heavy metal contents. The second experiment used 5 kg mushroom wastes as a base material, then pig manure (VPM), rice bran (VRM) and watermelon rind (VFM) were used to feed earthworms and the properties of materials were determined at the 0, 14th , 28th , 35th , 42th and 56th days during vermicomposting. Results showed that the contents of organic matter and organic carbon were decreased, while the effects of the changes of EC, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and heavy metal contents varied with different food characteristics and concentrated effects. The contents of nutrient were VPM > VRM > VFM > BK. The third experiment use 1 kg mushroom wastes as a base material then pig manure (VPM), rice bran (VRM) and watermelon rind (VFM) were used to feed earthworms, the number of adult earthworms, unclitellated earthworms, cocoons and the mean biomass of earthworm at the 0, 21th, 42th, 56th and 77th days during vermicomposting to compare the reproduction and growth of earthworm in each treatment. Results showed that VRM had highest number of adult earthworms, unclitellated earthworms, cocoons and mean biomass, followed by VPM, VFM and BK. It indicated rice bran was better in enhancing earthworms growth and reproduction than pig manure and watermelon rind. Although vermicompost had derived from lower nutrient contents, but had better earthworms growth and reproduction and lower heavy metal contents than that of pig manure, so rice bran is a better food source for earthworm growth and vermicompost production than other two organic wastes.

將有機廢棄物藉由堆肥化轉換成優質堆肥,具有資源回收再利用的效果。蚓糞堆肥化與高溫好氧堆肥化是常用之堆肥化處理方式,然前人多以不同資材製成之兩類堆肥作比較。本研究之目的在於(一) 比較以相同資材經預堆兩周後,分別進行好氧堆肥化和蚓糞堆肥化處理,並分別偵測其成分特性之變化與堆肥成品之成分特性;(二) 偵測分別以三種食材在分批餵食下對蚓糞堆肥化中養分含量及蚯蚓生殖生長的影響。本試驗使用的蚯蚓為Eisenia fetida。本研究分成三個試驗,試驗一以廢棄菇包混合豬糞 (50 % : 50 % , w/w) 作為基料,預堆兩周後,分別進行好氧堆肥化與蚓糞堆肥化,偵測不同時間 (0、14與69天) 之成分特性及堆肥成品之腐熟度。結果顯示,所有處理在堆肥化過程中有機質與有機碳含量因微生物或與蚯蚓分解作用而下降,而EC、總氮、磷、鉀、鈣、鎂、銅、鋅與鉛含量則因濃縮效應而有上升的現象。蚓糞堆肥化處理者之養分含量顯著低於好氧堆肥化者,但因蚓糞堆肥的EC値及重金屬含量相對較低,故較不易造成不利作物生長的風險。試驗二以5公斤廢棄菇包作為基料,分別以豬糞 (VPM)、米糠 (VRM) 與西瓜皮 (VFM) 餵食蚯蚓並進行蚓糞堆肥化,並於第0、14、28、35、42與56天測定所有處理堆積物及蚓糞堆肥之成分特性。結果顯示,所有處理在蚓糞堆肥化過程中之有機質與有機碳含量均呈下降趨勢,而EC値、總氮、磷、鉀、鈣與重金屬含量均因食材特性及濃縮程度之不同而異,且養分含量之高低依序為VPM > VRM > VFM > BK。試驗三以1公斤廢棄菇包作為基料,分別以豬糞、米糠與西瓜皮餵食蚯蚓並進行蚓糞堆肥化,並於第0、21、42、56與77天中計數成蚓平均生質量、成蚓數、幼蚯蚓數與蚯蚓卵囊數以評估各處理對蚯蚓生殖生長的影響。結果顯示,所有處理之成蚓、幼蚯蚓、蚯蚓卵囊數量與成蚓平均生質量均以VRM處理者較高,VPM處理次之,再次為VFM處理,而以BK處理最差;因此以米糠餵食蚯蚓較豬糞或西瓜皮在增進蚯蚓生殖生長之效果較佳。雖然餵食米糠製成蚓糞堆肥之養分含量較餵食豬糞者低,但因其有較佳之蚯蚓生殖生長及較低之重金屬含量,因此三種食材在餵養蚯蚓及蚓糞堆肥製作的效果中,以米糠較佳。
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