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|標題:||Effects of rhizobia inoculation, salt concentration and watering on isoflavones content of soybean
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Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merill) is one of the most widely cultivated crops in the world and is rich in isoflavones (IFs). IFs have an antioxidant activity and can reduce low-density lipoprotein, i.e. LDL, in the blood. In addition, the structure of IFs is similar to estrogen, and thus it has the potential health benefits of prevention and treatment of cancer, vascular disease, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms, and this has opened a new market for industry. Utilizing a variety of environmental factors to increase the quantity of IFs has been attempted. IF contents in soybean may be enhanced by excitors, but the result always lead to decline the biomass of plant. Therefore, the objectives of this study was to examine the variation of IF contents by inoculating rhizobia as well as adding of different degress of water or salinity stress. This approach was expected to maintain the growth of plant and enhance IF contents. The results showed that the IF contents varied greatly among different soybean cultivars in range of 6.74 - 133 microgram/kg. There were a great difference in IFs increment among soybean cultivars, and the highest IFs increment is GRASS FARM brand. The IF contents of soybean sprouts was increased with germination days in five days. Drought and salt stresses resulted in decreased isoflavone contents in soybean sprouts. The water through treatment can improved IF contents in soybean sprouts without affecting the biomass. The highest IF contents was the treatment with 50 mL water in every 12 hours grown under dark conditions. The effect of different bacterial strains varied in enhancing IF contents in soybean sprouts/plants. The strain Mesorhizobium sp. 3-3 isolated from Taichung Wufeng Agricultural Research Institute's soil had the best induction of IFs production both in soybean sprouts and plants. The higher IF contents of the soybean plants were associated with the higher activities of nitrogen fixation in roots, but it is not statistically significant.
大豆 (Glycine max (L.) Merill) 為全球最廣泛種植的栽培作物之一。大豆富含的大豆異黃酮 (isoflavones) 具有抗氧化能力，亦可降低血液中低密度膽固醇 (low-density lipoprotein, LDL)，其結構與人類雌激素相似，因此對於多種癌症、更年期症狀、骨質酥鬆症和心血管疾病等都具有預防與治療的潛在療效，而在全世界具有廣大的新興市場價值。過去許多研究嘗試利用各種不同環境因素去刺激大豆產生更多的異黃酮，雖然經刺激的大豆異黃酮含量有上升，但常造成植株生質量下降。因此，本研究藉由接種能促進植物生長的大豆根瘤菌，探討對異黃酮含量之影響，並以不同微生物刺激以及水分、鹽分管理方法處理大豆種子，探討對大豆植株與豆芽異黃酮含量之影響，期望促使大豆在生長過程中能感受到逆境的存在而提高植體內的異黃酮含量，另一方面又能保持其生長的狀態以確保得到更多的大豆產量。結果顯示，不同廠牌的大豆種子，異黃酮含量相差甚大，其範圍介於6.74 ~ 133 mg kg-1，最低和最高的廠牌可相差達20倍。而不同廠牌的大豆種子發芽時，異黃酮增加幅度差異很大，其中異黃酮濃度增加幅度最大的為青的農場廠牌。大豆在發芽五天內，異黃酮濃度隨發芽天數增加而上升。缺水和鹽逆境會導致大豆芽異黃酮含量下降。過水處理可在不影響大豆芽生長的情形下，提高異黃酮含量。其最佳結果為在不照光環境下，以每12小時過水50 mL可使異黃酮達最高量。不同根瘤菌種誘導大豆產生異黃酮的能力不同，而不論是在大豆植株或大豆芽試驗中皆以台中霧峰農試所土壤分離出來的Mesorhizobium sp. 3-3大豆根瘤菌誘導效果最佳。大豆根瘤的固氮活性和異黃酮含量有關係，在統計上雖不顯著，但有一致之趨勢。
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