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|標題:||Study on actinomycetes antagonistic to soilborne pathogens
|關鍵字:||actinomycetes;Fusarium wilt of tomato;meloidogyne incognita;biocontrol;放線菌;番茄萎凋病;南方根瘤線蟲;生物防治||引用:||吳文希。 1988。 植物土媒病原學(立枯絲核菌之性質及防治) 國立編譯館。 台北。 孫守恭和黃振文。 1996。 番茄萎凋病。 p. 29-32 世維出版社。 台中。 張繼中。2009。臺東地區酸性土壤問題及其改善方法。67期。p. 14-18。臺東區農業專訊。 陸家云，許志剛，陳永萱，諶多仁，鄧小波和曹以勤。 2004。 植物病害診斷。 p. 170-174 中國農業出版社。北京。 陳盛義。 1996。番茄萎凋病與抗病育種. 種苗科技專訊:4-4。 Adam, M., H. Heuer, and J. Hallmann. 2014. Bacterial Antagonists of Fungal Pathogens Also Control Root-Knot Nematodes by Induced Systemic Resistance of Tomato Plants. PLoS One 9:8. Aghighi, S., G. Shahidi Bonjar, R. Rawashdeh, S. Batayneh, and I. Saadoun. 2004. First report of antifungal spectra of activity of Iranian actinomycetes strains against Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora megasperma, Verticillium dahliae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 3:463-471. Ahmed, E., and S.J.M. Holmstrom. 2014. Siderophores in environmental research: roles and applications. Microb Biotechnol. 7:196-208. 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Du, and C.-Y. Tian. 2012. Suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and induced resistance of plants involved in the biocontrol of Cucumber Fusarium Wilt by Streptomyces bikiniensis HD-087. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 28:2919-2927.||摘要:||
The warm and humid climate as well as inappropriate soil fertilizer management result in outbreaks of plant disease in Taiwan, especially caused by soil-born plant pathogen. The were 177 strains of actinomycetes were isolated from four soils and one compost in Taiwan. Four isolates, A47, A177, A186 and A297, were selected for further studies based on their exceptional ability to inhibit Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Rhizoctonia solani growth by dual culture test. Furthermore, the selected isolations were tested the antifungal activities against sclerotium rolfsii and Phytophthora capsici by the dual culture test. At least two of these plant fungal pathogens were inhibited by the selected isolates, and their antifungal index were all > 40%. Both A177 and A297 inhibited all the tested soil-born plant fungal pathogens with varying efficiencies. The production of extracellular enzymes, including chitinase, cellulose, gelatinase, protease and lipase and amylase by these isolates were analyzed. The production of plant growth regulator including indole-3- acetic acid and siderophore were also evaluated. A47, A177 and A297 showed the greatest in production of the extracellular enzymes and plant growth regulator. These isolates were used to determine their antagonistic ability to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on potato dextrose agar plates with different pH values. The antifungal activities of A177, A186 and A297 were not significantly different as pH ranged from 4.5 to 9.5. The antifungal activities of A47 increased with increasing pH. A47, A177, A186 and A297 were taxonomically closed to Lentzea waywayandensis, Streptomyces sp., Amycolatopsis circi, and Streptomyces sp. repectively based on 16S rDNA sequences.The spore suspensions of A297 inhibited egg hatching rate of southern root-knot nematode, and increased the juvenile mortality. The hatching rate were 8%, and juveniles mortality rate were 30%. Although the spore suspension of A47 and A297 didn't show inhibition efficacy to juveniles, they decrease the ability of juveniles to infect water spinach by 16.3%. The pre-treatment of spore suspension of A297 reduced the population density of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and disease severity (biocontrol efficacy 87%). Application of spore suspension of A47 and A177 didn't reduce the population of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, but the disease severity was significantly reduced (biocontrol efficacy 100%). A47 and A177 may induce systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The culture filtrate of A297 treated with proteinase K and boiled. This indicated that A297 produced not only chitinase but also thermostable antifungal compound(s). A47, A177 and A297 could be developed as biocontrol agents for controlling tomato Fusarium wilt. Of them A47 and A297 could also be developed as biocontrol agents of southern root-knot nematode.
台灣氣候高溫多溼又缺乏冬季低溫，且農田未能適當肥培管理，造成植物病原菌肆虐，土傳性病害防治尤其困難。本研究自全台各地4個土壤和1個堆肥分離得177株放線菌，與番茄萎凋病菌 (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) 和大蒜立枯絲核病菌 (Rhizoctonia solani) 進行對峙培養篩選出抑制能力較佳的菌株A47、A177、A186和A297，進一步與番茄白絹病菌 (Sclerotium rolfsii) 和甜椒疫病菌 (Phytophthora capsici) 等土傳性植物病原真菌進行對峙培養測定，結果顯示供試放線菌至少能抑制其中兩種病原菌生長，抗真菌指數 (antifungal index) > 40%，其中A177和A297對所有土傳性植物病原菌均有不同程度的拮抗能力。供試放線菌在不同pH的馬鈴薯葡萄糖培養基 (potato dextrose agar) 上和番茄萎凋病菌進行對峙培養，在pH 4.5 - 9.5間，A177、A186和A297拮抗番茄萎凋病菌的能力並無明顯差異，A47隨著pH越高拮抗能力越強。測定供試放線菌產生幾丁質分解酵素、纖維素分解酵素、明膠分解酵素、蛋白質分解酵素、脂質分解酵素和澱粉分解酵素等胞外酵素，吲哚乙酸和載鐵物質等植物調節物質，結果顯示A47、A177和A297產生胞外酵素和植物調節物質能力較強。根據16S rDNA序列分析結果顯示A47之分類地位最接近為Lentzea waywayandensis，A186為Amycolatopsis circi，A177和A297均為Streptomyces sp.。放線菌防治南方根瘤線蟲試驗中，A297孢子懸浮液抑制卵塊孵化並提高孵化後二齡幼蟲死亡率，卵塊孵化率僅有8%，孵化後二齡幼蟲死亡率為30% ; A47和A297孢子懸浮液雖然不能直接抑制二齡根瘤線蟲數量但會降低二齡根齡線蟲侵染蕹菜的能力，發病率 (disease incidence) 降低16.3%。供試放線菌於番茄萎凋病溫室防治試驗中，預先接種A297孢子懸浮液可直接減少番茄萎凋病菌之數量，降低番茄罹病度 (disease severity)，生物防治效果達87% ; A47和A177雖然並沒有顯著降低番茄萎凋病菌的數量，亦可顯著降低番茄罹病度，生物防治效果達100%，推測可能是藉由誘導植物產生系統性抗病。A297培養濾液經過proteinase K和加熱處理，仍具有抑制番茄萎凋病菌生長的能力，顯示A297可藉由產生幾丁質分解酵素和耐高溫之抗生物質以抑制番茄萎凋病菌。本研究結果顯示A47、A177和A297具有作為番茄萎凋病生物防治劑的潛力，其中A47和A297亦具有發展為南方根瘤線蟲生物防治劑的潛力。
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