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|標題:||Iron Uptake Mechanisms in Rice Seedlings
|關鍵字:||Rice (Oryza sative L.);Iron uptake;Iron redox;Root oxidative activity;Fe stable isotope;水稻 (Oryza sative L.);鐵吸收;鐵氧化還原;根部氧化能力;鐵穩定同位素分化||引用:||行政院農委會。2013。101年我國糧食供需統計結果。農政與農情第256期。 王一雄。1997。土壤環境污染與農藥。明文書局。 Ando, T., S. Yoshida and I. Nishiyama. 1983. Nature of oxidizing power of rice roots. Plant and Soil. 72: 57-71. Arenovski, A. L. and B. L. Howes.1992. Lacunal allocation and gas-transport capacity in the salt-marsh grass spartina-alterniflora. Oecologia. 90(3): 316-322. Armstrong J. and Armstrong W. 1988. Phramited australis preliminary study of soil-oxidizing sites and internal gas transport pathways. New Phytologist. 108: 373-382. Armstrong W. 1971. Radial oxygen lossws from intact rice roots as affected by distance from the apex, respiration, and waterlogging. Physiologia Plantarum. 25: 192-197. Armstrong, W. 1967. The oxidising activity of roots in waterlogged soils. Physiologia Plantarum. 20: 920-926. Audebert, A. 2006. 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Rice (Oryza sative L.), a graminaceous plants, uses the Strategy II mechanism to absorb Fe from soil, but previous studies also demonstrated that rice can take up Fe (II) directly through OsIRT1 and OsIRT2. During rice growing season, paddy soil is submerged. The submerging conditions result in the temperal and spatial variations in the concentrations of Fe (II) and Fe (III) in the soils. Therefore, we hypothesized that rice might be able to regulate the uptake of Fe from paddy soil. Accordingly, Fe uptakes of rice seedlings in different Fe (II)/Fe (III) conditions were investigated. Rice plants were grown in hydroponic solutions with different concentrations of Fe (II)/ Fe (III), ranging from deficient conditions to toxic conditions. FeSO4:NH2OH=1:1and Fe (III)-EDTA was used as the sources of Fe (II) and Fe (III), respectively. In the treatments of lower Fe concentrations (0.17~1.7 mg Fe L-1), the result showed that rice can take up Fe more efficiency in Fe (II) system than the Fe (III) counterparts. Therefore the OsIRO2 gene expression in the Fe (II) system is lower than that in the Fe (III) system. In the treatments of higher Fe concentrations (17~85 mg Fe L-1), Fe concentrations in rice plants increased with increasing Fe concentration in hydroponic solution, especially in the Fe (II) system. Moreover, the Fe concentrations of plants in the Fe (II) system are much higher than their Fe (III) counterparts. The Fe concentrations in iron plaque and in shoot are highly correlated and the formation of iron plaque changed with increasing Fe concentration in the solution. The content of ferrihydrite in the iron plaque is also increased. These results indicated that the concentration of Fe in iron plaque and the formation of iron plaque determine the iron uptake of rice. Nonetherless, the Fe concentration in iron plaque was not correlated to root oxidative capacity/ hydrogen peroxide content. The results of stable Fe isotope fractionation showed that Fe (II) undergoes an oxidative precipitation mechanism on rice root surface but can also be taken up directly by rice root. Thus, Fe (II) is oxidized to Fe (III), which is then bound to phytosiderophores and the resultant Fe (III)-PS complexes were taken by rice root. In the Fe (II) system, rice can use more than one uptake strategies and therefore exhibits a higher Fe uptake efficiency.
水稻 (Oryza sative L.)屬於禾本科植物，主要是利用策略II吸收Fe (III)，但水稻也被證實能透過OsIRT1和OsIRT2的載鐵蛋白，直接的吸收Fe (II)。由於水田土壤中Fe (II)/ Fe (III)的濃度為一動態變化，水稻為適應此土壤環境，應有一套調控鐵吸收的機制，因此本研究為探討水稻幼苗在不同Fe (II)/ Fe (III)濃度 (包含鐵缺乏到鐵毒害) 的水耕條件下對鐵的吸收機制，所使用的水稻品種為台梗九號 (Tai- keng 9)，並分別使用FeSO4:NH2OH=1:1和Fe (III)-EDTA做為水耕液中的Fe(II)和Fe(III)來源。其結果顯示在低濃度 (0.17~1.7 mg Fe L-1)處理下，水稻在Fe (II)系統中有較好的吸收效率，OsIRO2的基因表現量較Fe (III)系統低；在高濃度 (17~85 mg Fe L-1)處理下，Fe (II)/ Fe (III)系統水稻植體中的鐵濃度皆隨水耕液鐵濃度的增加而增加，尤以Fe (II)系統中植體莖部的鐵濃度為最。然而，在各濃度處理下，Fe (II)系統植體中的鐵濃度卻大於Fe (III)系統。從水稻根表鐵膜的生成與水耕液的鐵濃度有顯著的正相關、鐵膜的鐵濃度和莖部鐵濃度顯著正相關，以及Fe (II)系統中鐵膜的水鐵礦組成會隨鐵濃度的增加而增加的結果，此皆顯示鐵膜的鐵濃度和礦物組成會影響水稻對鐵的吸收。不過，鐵膜的生成量與根部的總氧化力和H2O2的含量卻無顯著的相關性。以鐵的穩定同位素來探討水稻對鐵的吸收機制上發現，在根部除了有鐵的氧化沉澱外，在Fe (II)系統中也發現有Fe (II)直接吸收的現象。在莖部則顯示鐵膜中的鐵會與載鐵物質 (phytosiderophores)鉗合後，形成Fe (III)-PS的鉗合物再吸收，以及鐵膜還原溶解後再吸收的機制，但隨水耕液中的鐵濃度增加，則顯示鐵會直接進入水稻植體中。相較於Fe(III)系統，生長於Fe (II)系統的水稻具有較多的鐵吸收策略，因此在低鐵濃度的情況下鐵的吸收效率較高；但隨鐵濃度的增加，無論是在Fe (II)/ Fe (III)系統，皆有大量的鐵被吸收進入水稻植體當中。
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