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標題: Effects of different mixtures of pig manure and mushroom culture waste with different pre-composting time on earthworm growth and quality of vermicomposts
作者: Ming-Hong Zhan
關鍵字: pre-composting;mixtures of pig manure and mushroom culture waste;earthworm;growth;reproduction;vermicompost;預堆;豬糞與菇類養殖廢棄包混合物;蚯蚓;生長;生殖;蚓糞堆肥
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The production of livestock manure was increased with increasing livestock industrial development and people population, therefore, more environmental crisis were caused. Thermocomposting has been adopted as a good way for reduction and recycle of wastes. Vermicomposting is emerging as a appropriate alternative to thermocomposting, this process is not only easily controllable, cost effective, energy saving, and no waste process, but also accomplishes most efficient recycling of organics and nutrients. The pathogens and weed seeds couldn't be eliminated, and the content of ammonia in the livestock manure couldn't be decreased effectively by vermicomposting due to the temperature during the vermicomposting was at 10 ~ 35℃ for earthworm growth, however, these problems could be resolved by pre-composting. The nutrient availabilities of raw materials and the growth and reproduction of earthworm may be reduced after pre-composting and then the quality of vermicompost will be affected. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of the mixtures of pig manure and mushroom culture wastes with different pre-composting time on earthworm growth and reproduction and the characteristic and quality of vermicomposts after vermicomposting. The earthworms were feed in different treatments, and the survival, mature worm biomass, cocoon production, reproduction of the earthworm were determined over experimental period. Another experiment was conducted to compare the properties of end product of composting with and without earthworm using those mixtures. Vermicomposts produced from each treatment were analyzed and their qualities were evaluated. Result showed that the mature worm biomass was higher in the treatment without pre-composting, due to the lower C/N ratio, and the number of immature worm was higher in the treatment with 3-week pre-composting, because of lower toxicity existed. The pH, the contents of organic matter and organic carbon were decreased, and the contents of nutrients and heavy metals were increased for all treatments after experiment. In addition, the changes in these contents of all treatments were stable after 28-day vermicomposting. Based on the results of C/N, seed germination and ingredient analysis, vermicomposts obtained from all treatments were found to meet the standards of compost announced by the Agriculture Council of ROC.

由於人口的增加,肉品的需求大增,帶動畜牧業的發展,但同時也造成大量禽畜糞的產出,常會造成土壤、地下水及空氣相等環境汙染。堆肥化是廢棄物減量和廢棄物資源再利用的最佳處理方式,而蚓糞堆肥化近年來被認為可部分取代傳統堆肥法,其不僅可有效地利用有機廢棄物之養分,並具有易於操作、低成本及不會產生任何廢棄物之優點。然蚓糞堆肥化過程中的溫度須維持在10 - 35℃以適合蚯蚓生長,致無法有效消除禽畜糞中的病原菌、雜草種子及降低過高的氨對蚯蚓的傷害,而預堆可解決這些問題。隨預堆時間的增加,原料中的養分可能會降低,致蚯蚓的生長生殖能力降低,進而影響產出的蚓糞堆肥之品質。本研究評估不同預堆時間的豬糞與廢菇包混合物對於蚯蚓生長生殖及產出的蚓糞堆肥成分特性的變化與品質的影響。本研究以不同預堆時間 (0、1、2、3週) 豬糞與廢菇包混合物飼養蚯蚓 (Eisenia fetida) 12週,並定期測定成蚓生質量、存活隻數、卵囊數目及幼蚯蚓隻數。另,設置有無添加蚯蚓於不同預堆期之豬糞與廢菇包混合物,在八週內定期測定各處理成分特性變化與評估產出的蚓糞堆肥品質。試驗結果顯示,未預堆的豬糞與廢菇包混合物處理有較高的成蚓生質量,此與其碳氮比較低有關;預堆三週的豬糞與廢菇包混合物之處理有較高的幼蚯蚓數,此乃因其有害幼蚯蚓生長的物質較少所致。在蚓糞堆肥過程中,各處理的pH、有機質含量、有機碳含量及碳氮比皆下降,而養分及重金屬含量均上升,且在試驗28天後趨於穩定。利用碳氮比及相對種子發芽率等指標及成分之檢測,顯示本試驗之豬糞與廢菇包混合物藉由蚓糞堆肥化作用後,所產出之蚓糞堆肥均符合農委會公告之雜項堆肥品目標準。
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