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標題: The Impact of Floor System on Commercial Layer's Egg Production and Hen's Preference of Nest Location
作者: Lin-Ciao Liao
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消費者訴求蛋雞福祉,以致蛋雞友善飼養系統的發展日益重要。如何在提升蛋雞福祉之時又能兼顧生產效益是國內捨去傳統籠飼而採用替代式生產系統應該解決之重要課題。本研究旨在探討平飼生產系統對於商業蛋雞產蛋性能的影響以及蛋雞對巢箱位置之選擇。試驗使用 385 隻 ISA Brown 蛋雞,平飼育成至 16 週齡分為籠飼與平飼兩組。籠飼為水簾雞舍設置二層層疊籠;平飼為負壓雞舍,設置巢箱與棲架,並有戶外空間。結果顯示,室內溫濕度方面,平飼溫差顯著高於籠飼,6-8 月溫度皆高於籠飼;而相對濕度 6-7 及 9-10 月籠飼較高。平飼體重顯著較高,且平飼蛋雞較早達到 50 %產蛋(164 vs. 180 日齡),50 %產蛋日至 58 週齡的隻日產蛋率較高(85.8 vs. 70.5%),平均隻日蛋產量較多(55.66 vs. 41.90 g)。25週齡的蛋品質兩組差異不大,但 35 及 45 週出現顯著差異。平飼雞蛋的蛋重、蛋殼含量、蛋長、蛋殼彩度、厚度都顯著較高,而且蛋黃顏色較深。籠飼雞蛋則有較高的霍氏單位(87.0 vs. 82.7)。母雞開始產蛋時偏向使用特定方位的巢箱,但在24 週齡後各個方位的差異開始趨於平緩 雖然全期的產蛋大多在下層巢箱。(87.3%),但 48 週齡後母雞在上層產蛋數明顯上升到 20%。全期地面蛋的比例為 1.23%,但是有隨時間而下降的趨勢。19 至 30 週巢外蛋發生的區域較分散,不過隨週齡上升有聚集於特定區域的現象。從巢外蛋的分布情形可知舒適程度以及資源的多寡(飲水器、人員進出口、小門)會影響母雞地面產蛋的偏好。綜上所述,平飼生產系統雖然勞力成本較高,但是除了飼養環境改善之外也保有較佳的產蛋性能,可能值得推廣。

A growing demand by consumers for hen's welfare has led to the important development of 'animal-friendly' layer housing systems. How to maintain production efficiency while promoting hen's welfare is an important task to adopt alternative production system to replace the traditional battery cage system for our egg industry. The research is to investigate the impact of floor system on commercial layer's egg production and the hen's preference of nest location. Three hundreds and eighty-five ISA Brown laying hens were tested in this study. They were raised on floor pen to 16 weeks of age before allocated to cage and floor layer houses. The floor system was a negative pressure house with nests and perches inside and hens can access to outdoor area. Cage system was a water-pad evaporation house with two tiers of single-bird cages. For room temperature and relative humidity, the floor system had larger daily temperature range and higher temperature from June to August. But the cage system had higher relative humidity from June to July and September to October. Hens in floor system had heavier body weight. They reached 50 % laying rate earlier (164 vs. 180 d), and had higher hen-day laying rate to 58 weeks of age (85.8 vs. 70.5%). Besides, average hen-day egg mass was better (55.66 vs. 41.90 g). No difference for egg quality traits was found at 25 weeks of age, but 35 and 45 weeks showed significant difference. Egg weight, shell percent, egg length, shell color and thickness were higher and yolk color was darker in eggs laid by floor hens. However, cage eggs had better Haugh unit (87.0 vs. 82.7). When the hens started to lay, they preferred nest at certain location, but after 24 weeks of age, the preference to lay in nests at special location started to disappear. Although, almost all eggs (87.3%) laid in the entire experiment period were found in the nest of the lower tier, more hens started to use upper tier to lay eggs after 48 weeks of age and the proportion reached 20%. The proportion of eggs laid on the floor was 1.23%, but it decreased with age. At 19-30 weeks of age, the locations of mislaid eggs are separated, but only appeared at some specific locations with age increased. The distribution of mislaid eggs suggested that the level of comfort and the amount of resources influence the preference of hen laying on floor. To sum up, even though the floor system has higher labor cost, but it does improve hen's living and also retain good egg production performance. Floor system may be deserved to be adopted by Taiwan industry.
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