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|標題:||Establishment of cell culture systems and induced methods of mouse pluripotent stem cell
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Cell Stem Cell 7:651-5.||摘要:||
於桃莉羊出生前，一般認為哺乳動物細胞的分化為不可逆之生理機制，但自從複製羊桃莉被產製出來後，再經過近20年的努力，目前的研究已發展出數種方式，可將已分化之哺乳動物細胞進行再程式化（reprogramming）。細胞再程式化指的是將已分化之體細胞回復至分化程度較低，或甚至類似幹細胞的狀態。然而，成功將體細胞完全再程式化至「誘發式多能性幹細胞（induced pluripotent stem cells, iPSCs）」的效率仍舊很低。因此，本研究欲藉由不同培養方式與添加物，期能改善細胞再程式化效率。試驗一，為有效辨識小鼠細胞於培養系統或再程式化過程中多能性幹細胞（pluripotent stem cells）之生成，因此構築數個帶有不同Oct4基因啟動子（promoter）序列與綠色螢光蛋白（green fluorescent protein, GFP）報導基因之載體，先以轉染試劑測試外源基因於轉染細胞後之表現能力，挑選符合預期表現之報導基因進行原核顯微注射。產製之Native pOct4-AcGFP (多能性標誌基因) 與pCX-EGFP（對照組）基因轉殖小鼠，經PCR檢測確認其轉殖成功，且均具性腺遺傳能力。觀察不同時期基因轉殖鼠胚之Native pOct4-AcGFP表現模式，為確立所獲得之基因轉殖小鼠可於不同發育期別正確表現報導基因，結果顯示桑椹胚至早期囊胚期鼠胚細胞均具明顯Native pOct4-AcGFP訊號，且隨著胚胎發育pOct4-GFP訊號逐漸聚集於囊胚內細胞團（inner cell mass, ICM）中，隨後僅只表現於胎兒性腺組織，而由Native pOct4-AcGFP基因轉殖小鼠囊胚所建立之胚幹細胞（embryonic stem cells, ESCs）亦具Native pOct4-AcGFP表現能力。此外，此Native pOct4-AcGFP基因轉殖鼠之胎兒成纖維母細胞與尾巴成纖維母細胞等分化細胞則不表現Native pOct4-AcGFP，顯示此載體構築之專一性，適用於後續試驗。試驗二，因無血清（serum free）與無飼養層細胞（feeder free）之培養系統有助於研究多能性幹細胞之生理機制以及未來應用，因此，本試驗將Native pOct4-AcGFP mESCs培養於含不同細胞外基質（extracellular matrices, ECM, 包含Matrigel, StemAdhere, Vitronectin, Gelatin與poly-D-lysine），並以無血清之LIF + 2i（CHIR99021+ PD0325901）培養液進行培養，並分析胚幹細胞之naïve與primed狀態，以及其生長速率與多能性基因之表現。結果顯示，所有試驗組之mESCs均表現Native pOct4-AcGFP，其中培養於poly-D-lysine之mESCs，其生長速度顯著低於其他試驗組（P < 0.01）。利用real-time RT-PCR分析培養於不同ECM上mESCs之naïve, 多能性與較後期primed狀態之標誌基因表現，發現培養於Vitronectin與Gelatin之mESCs mRNA表現圖譜相較於其他處理組接近naïve狀態。以免疫螢光染色法偵測mESCs培養於不同ECM上之Oct4, Sox2, Nanog與Dppa3（naïve marker）以及Gata6（primed marker）之基因表現，發現所有處理組皆表現Dppa3, Oct4, Sox2與Nanog，而無Gata6表現，顯示mESCs於ECM以及LIF + 2i環境下培養可維持其多能性與naïve標誌基因表現。試驗三，以反轉錄病毒（retrovirus）轉染外源性因子Oct4, Sox2, c-myc以及Klf4至體細胞基因組中可使其再程式化為誘發式多能性幹細胞，但病毒基因會嵌入宿主細胞基因組中，可能造成基因組突變與細胞癌化等風險，因此，近年有研究利用非基因嵌入法（non-integrating）使體細胞進行再程式化，但iPSCs產製效率不佳。本試驗以質體短暫性表現外源轉錄因子並搭配小分子藥物進行小鼠胚胎纖維母細胞之再程式化，期望提高非基因嵌入法產製iPSCs之效率。結果顯示，於培養第一週即可出現細胞團（colony），但其結構不易維持在含有血清之培養液，因此，以血清替代物（serum replacement）取代之。而添加小分子藥物Valproic acid sodium salt, CHIR992021, 616452, Tranylcypromine, Forskolin以及3-deazaneplanocin則有助於細胞再程式化，培養至第四週時可獲得大量「pre-iPSCs」。Pre-iPSCs經免疫化學染色檢定確認可表現多能性基因Oct4, Sox2以及Nanog。Pre-iPSCs透過LIF + 2i培養液可篩選出依賴naïve幹細胞訊息調控之iPSCs。總結，雖本試驗之再程式化製程可快速獲得Pre-iPSCs，但未如預期加速於LIF + 2i環境中生成iPSCs之時間，顯示此細胞再程式化製程仍有改善的空間。
It had been believed that the mammalian differentiated cells were unable to return to the undifferentiated status before the birth of Dolly the Sheep. However, after entering the era of post-Dolly, several methods have been developed to reprogram the mammalian differentiated cells during the past two decades. Reprogramming refers to the reversion of somatic cells into a less differentiated state, or even a stem-cell-like state. Nevertheless, to date, reprogramming cells into the fully reprogrammed induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) remains at an inefficient and non-specific process. Hence, the aim of this study was to improve the reprogramming efficiency by using different culture systems and supplementation of small molecules. In Experiment 1, in order to effectively determine the emergence of mouse pluripotent stem cells during cell culture or cellular reprogramming, several reporter vectors, composed of different regulatory regions of Oct4 promoter with green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene, were constructed. These constructs were analyzed for specific expression by using chemical-based transfection into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or primary cells before conducting pronuclear microinjection to produce transgenic mice. Several transgenic mice carrying native pOct4-AcGFP (a pluripotent reporter) or pCX-GFP (a universal reporter) genes were confirmed by PCR analysis and have been confirmed as germline-transmitted lines. In order to confirm the expression patterns of reporter gene during development in transgenic mice, we collected the in vivo derived transgenic embryos. The native pOct4-AcGFP signals were shown in the cells widely distributed in transgenic embryos at the morula to the early blastocyst stages. Moreover, the native pOct4-AcGFP signals were gradually concentrated into the pluripotent ICM region in the expanded and hatched blastocysts, and then the native pOct4-AcGFP signals were migrated to gonads in fetus. Mouse ESCs derived from pOct4-AcGFP blastocysts also showed intensive GFP signals in the individual cells compared to no expression in the differentiated cell types, such as embryonic and tail-tip fibroblasts. The pOct4-AcGFP mESCs line was ready for the next experiments. In Experiment 2, due to the benefit of serum-free and feeder-free culture systems to the study of the physiological mechanism of pluripotent stem cells and further therapy applications, the aim of this experiment was to analyze the status of naïve and primed, the proliferation rate and the expression of pluripotent gense in the native pOct4-AcGFP mESCs cultured on various extra cellular matrix (ECM) components, including matrigel, stemadhere, vitronectin, gelatin and poly-D-lysine, in the LIF + 2i (CHIR99021+ PD0325901) medium, and without serum and feeder layer. Results showed that native pOct4-AcGFP signals were detected in all treatments. Proliferation of mESCs cultured on that the poly-D-lysine was significantly lower than those in other groups. By real-time RT-PCR, it indicated that the analyzed genes in the native pOct4-AcGFP mESCs cultured on vitronectin expressed in a similar pattern to that cultured on the feeder layer. Additionally, it was found that the naïve marker gene, Dppa3, and the pluripotency marker genes, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, were detected in each treatment, while the primed marker gene, GATA6, was undetectable. In conclusion, ESCs cultured on various ECM components with LIF + 2i medium could maintain the expression of pluripotent and and naïve marker genes and proteins. In Experiment 3, previous studies indicated that mature somatic cells can be reprogrammed into a pluripotent state by retrovirus infection of Oct4, Sox2, c-myc and Klf4, or called the Yamanaka factors, which would generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). However, retrovirus vectors may induce carcinogenesis or insertional mutagenesis when iPSCs are proliferating. Recently, non-integrating methods were reported to reprogram somatic cells, but the efficiency was low. Hence, the aim of this experiment was to improve the reprogramming efficiency by combining small-molecule compounds, including Valproic acid sodium salt, CHIR99021, 616452, Tranylcypromine, Forskolin and 3-deazaneplanocin, with plasmid transfection of the Yamanaka factors. Results showed that cell colonies appeared at the first week of culture, but the dome shape was unstable when the environment contains serum. Therefore, the culture system was changed into serum-free medium and the pre-iPSCs were generated using serum-free medium combine with small molecules at the fourth week of culture. The pre-iPSCs expressed pluripotent markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog protein analyzed by immunocytochemistry (ICC) staining. In conclusion, generated the pre-iPSCs was more efficient in the experiment, but the efficiency of iPSCs generation was not improved largely in LIF + 2i medium and the optimal cell reprogramming conditions for generate iPSCs still require further investigation.
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