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Effect of Bacillus mycoides on Control of Trichoderma Green Mould Disease of Button Mushroom
Rex Saleng Dullit
|關鍵字:||生物防治;蕈狀芽孢桿菌;洋菇綠黴病;Biocontroll;Bacillus mycoides;Trichoderma sp.;Agaricus biporus||引用:||Abou-Zeid, M. 2012. Pathogenic variation in isolates of Pseudomonas causing the brown blotch of cultivated mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, 43:1137-1146. Ahmed, A. S., S?nchez, C. P. & Candela, M. E. 2000. Evaluation of induction of systemic resistance in pepper plants (Capsicum annuum) to Phytophthora capsici using Trichoderma harzianum and its relation with capsidiol accumulation. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 106:817-824. Alabouvette, C., Olivain, C. & Steinberg, C. 2006. Biological control of plant diseases: The European situation. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 114:329-341. Anastasi, A., Varese, G. & Marchisio, V. 2005. Isolation and identification of fungal communities in compost and vermicompost. Mycologia, 97:33-44. Anderson, M., Beyer, D. & Wuest, P. 2001. 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Green mould disease, caused by several Trichoderma spp. is a major disease of Agaricus mushroom around the world. In severe cases, green mould infection inhibited the mushroom fruiting formation resulting to no production at all. Control method widely used against green mould is strict hygiene and sanitation within the growing area accompanied by application of commercial chemicals. However, continuous usage of chemical control may lead to the development of resistance of the fungal pathogen. Apart from that, rampant chemical application has adverse effect to the environment and human health. In the present study, soil sample of green mould disease was isolated from an infected growing substrate medium of Agaricus bisporus. After morphological characterization, the isolate was identified as Trichoderma virens. In vitro study of the causal agent of green mould disease showed aggressive growth at 28°C. Fresh mushroom cap of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when artificially infected with 10 ?l of T. virens containing 103 cfu/ml. Same aliquot containing 105 cfu/ml caused green sporulation of the mushroom caps. In this study, the possibility of using bacterial strains as biocontrol agent and as alternative control method was carried out. Under laboratory conditions, thirteen Bacillus mycoides strains including NP02, BM02, RA-01, RA-08, RA-11, GS02, LG-01, NRHG-04, NRCL-03, TSFA-01, TSO-05, WT-15, and WT-16 were evaluated for suppressive effects against T. virens, the identified green mould mushroom pathogen isolated from local mushroom growing substrate. All the tested B. mycoides strains exhibited varied antagonistic effects on mycelial growth of the mushroom pathogen. Among the antagonistic bacterial strains, BM02 was the most effective fungal suppressant. Infection of T. virens was on mushroom cap was reduced upon exposure to BM02. Test revealed that 100 x dilute BM02 greatly reduced the population density of T. virens in an artificially infected casing soil. Application of BM02 suspension in growing media of white fleshed button mushroom (ARI-1H11) increased yield by over 60% whereas the same suspension reduced yield of brown fleshed button mushroom (CTB-10) by 40%. Contrasting result revealed that the effect of B. mycoides in relation to growth and yield of button mushroom depends on the strain level. Nevertheless, field tests confirmed that BMO2 applied on mushroom growing media does not have adverse impact on button mushroom.
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