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dc.contributorDr. Jenn-Wen Huangen_US
dc.contributor.authorRex Saleng Dulliten_US
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dc.description.abstractGreen mould disease, caused by several Trichoderma spp. is a major disease of Agaricus mushroom around the world. In severe cases, green mould infection inhibited the mushroom fruiting formation resulting to no production at all. Control method widely used against green mould is strict hygiene and sanitation within the growing area accompanied by application of commercial chemicals. However, continuous usage of chemical control may lead to the development of resistance of the fungal pathogen. Apart from that, rampant chemical application has adverse effect to the environment and human health. In the present study, soil sample of green mould disease was isolated from an infected growing substrate medium of Agaricus bisporus. After morphological characterization, the isolate was identified as Trichoderma virens. In vitro study of the causal agent of green mould disease showed aggressive growth at 28°C. Fresh mushroom cap of A. bisporus turned brown and decreased in size when artificially infected with 10 ?l of T. virens containing 103 cfu/ml. Same aliquot containing 105 cfu/ml caused green sporulation of the mushroom caps. In this study, the possibility of using bacterial strains as biocontrol agent and as alternative control method was carried out. Under laboratory conditions, thirteen Bacillus mycoides strains including NP02, BM02, RA-01, RA-08, RA-11, GS02, LG-01, NRHG-04, NRCL-03, TSFA-01, TSO-05, WT-15, and WT-16 were evaluated for suppressive effects against T. virens, the identified green mould mushroom pathogen isolated from local mushroom growing substrate. All the tested B. mycoides strains exhibited varied antagonistic effects on mycelial growth of the mushroom pathogen. Among the antagonistic bacterial strains, BM02 was the most effective fungal suppressant. Infection of T. virens was on mushroom cap was reduced upon exposure to BM02. Test revealed that 100 x dilute BM02 greatly reduced the population density of T. virens in an artificially infected casing soil. Application of BM02 suspension in growing media of white fleshed button mushroom (ARI-1H11) increased yield by over 60% whereas the same suspension reduced yield of brown fleshed button mushroom (CTB-10) by 40%. Contrasting result revealed that the effect of B. mycoides in relation to growth and yield of button mushroom depends on the strain level. Nevertheless, field tests confirmed that BMO2 applied on mushroom growing media does not have adverse impact on button mushroom.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsAbstract i Table of contents iii Contents of tables and figures vi Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION 1 Literature Review 2 1.0 History of cultivation 2 1.1 Global mushroom production 3 1.2 The button mushroom 4 1.3 Cultivation 5 1.3.1 The Substrate 5 1.3.2 Phase I composting 6 1.3.3 Phase II composting 7 1.3.4 Spawning 7 1.3.5 Casing 8 1.3.6 Harvesting 8 1.4 Button mushroom diseases 9 1.4.1 Viral disease 9 1.4.2 Bacterial disease 10 1.4.3 Fungal disease 10 1.5 The Trichoderma spp. 11 1.5.1 Taxonomy and ecology 11 1.5.2 Trichoderma spp. as biocontrol 13 1.6 Trichoderma spp. as mushroom pathogen 13 1.7 Economic importance of green mould 14 1.7.1 Symptomology 15 1.7.2 Sources of infection 15 1.7.3 Control and management 16 1.8 Biological control agents 18 1.9 Bacillus spp. 19 1.10 Objectives 21 Chapter 2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 22 2.0 The mushroom strains 22 2.1 Growth of button mushroom 23 2.2 Isolation of the fungal contaminant 24 2.3 Morphological characterization of the pathogen 25 2.4 Growth of Trichoderma virens 25 2.5 Bacterial strains 26 2.6 Screening of biocontrol agents on sealed plate technique 27 2.7 Pathogenicity test of Trichoderma virens 28 2.8 Effect of Bacillus mycoides on population density of T.virens artificially infested in mushroom casing soil 29 2.9 Effect of Bacillus mycoides on the mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus 30 2.10 Evaluation of Bacillus mycoides on the yield of button mushroom 31 Chapter 3 RESULTS 33 3.0 Growth of button mushroom 33 3.1 Morphological characteristics of isolate no BTP-10 34 3.2 Growth of Trichoderma virens 35 3.3 Pathogenicity test of Trichoderma virens 36 3.4 Effects of volatiles of Bacillus mycoides strains on colony growth on of Trichoderma virens isolate BTP-10 for 4 days at different temperature 36 3.5 Effect of Bacillus mycoides agent strain BM02 microbial with various concentrations on population density of Trichoderma virens artificially infested on casing soil 37 3.6 Effect of Bacillus mycoides with various concentrations on mycelial growth of Agaricus bisporus 38 3.7 Effect of Bacillus mycoides on the yield of button mushroom 38 Chapter 4 DISCUSSION 40 REFERENCES 43 APPENDICES 57zh_TW
dc.subjectBacillus mycoidesen_US
dc.subjectTrichoderma sp.en_US
dc.subjectAgaricus biporusen_US
dc.titleEffect of Bacillus mycoides on Control of Trichoderma Green Mould Disease of Button Mushroomen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationen_US
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextwith fulltext-
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