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標題: 農業創新平台之利益關係者優先順序與目標設定-以泰國楠省為例
Stakeholder Priorities and Goals during initiation of an Agricultural Innovation Platform in Nan Province, Thailand
作者: 李妙珍
Daranrat Jaitiang
關鍵字: 創新平台;農業;泰國北部地區;Innovation Platform;Agriculture;Northern region of Thailand
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泰國北部高原的農民因在坡地密集單一種植玉米,而面臨低產量,土壤酸化之問題,尤其在楠省地區又遇長期乾旱,因此此地區需要研究及相關單位協助農民發展並評估可能之解決方法。其中研究發展平台(R4D platform) 即為方法之一,研究發版平台是一個由利益相關者所組成的網路,在這之中的利益相關者包括了定期參與協調解決方案之農民、政府機構人員、研究人員及私人機構。但這些利益相關者所關照的重點和利益皆不同,這也在協調的過程中造成困難,因此此研究分析了源自Humitropics計畫中之楠省研究發展平台內不同利益相關者所關注之優先考量、利益及需要。此研究之目標為:(1) 指出楠省農民的需求及優先考量,及楠省農業創新發展平台其他利益相關者之利益及優先考量重點;(2)辨認不同利益相關者共同及衝突的利益及優先考量。此研究之研究方法包括了深入訪談、焦點討論(FDG) 及Q 方法,56位參與者分別被派以參與此三種方法所構成的活動之中,第一個活動自R4D平台中挑選出29名參與者參與Q分類,其餘參與者則參與小組焦點討論及深入訪談。參與者的需求及考量重點以小組焦點討論及深入訪談中探知,其結果顯示出楠省相關農業共同之問題。其中包括了市場、天災、自給、玉米種植系統、環境狀況、相關知識、邏輯運輸、機構宣傳、產量等。而農民關注較多的為農地資金來源、農業專業知識、播種、政府支持及水資源管理。其餘利益關係者所關心的為農林業、現代科技、行銷管道、農業知識的支持、有益之研究、可在市場販售之產品、水資源管理、及依據泰皇理論足夠之經濟基礎。Q分析的結果中指出二顯著的關注點,分別為研發及環境議題,除此之外Q分析之結果可得知參與者之同意或反對之意見。參與者同意於多樣化農業、推廣畜牧產業、種植蔬菜、政府提供之協助、橡膠栽種、化學農藥破壞、毀林、自給自足及其他等議題;另一方面,參與者則不同意於種植玉米所造成的食品安全議題、負債及在山坡上種植果樹。除此之外此研究也對於如何使楠省創新平台的運作更有效率作出建議;例如達成適當的機構性協議、定期會議、防止個人濫用及剝削平台、給予所有利益相關者平等發聲的機會、及確保此創新平台直接對當地社群產生利益。此研究的參與者最終期待能狗提升此地區的永續性,農業多元化也能在未來發揮其價值。

Farmers in the upland of northern part of Thailand face problems with low yields, soil erosion due to intensive maize mono-cropping on sloping lands especially in Nan Province and prolonged drought. Research and development efforts are needed to identify possible solutions, evaluate them and scale them out to farmers. One approach to doing this is the use of Research for Development (R4D) platform, which is a network of stakeholders, including farmers, government officers, researchers and private sector, who meet on a regular basis to try and coordinate the development of long-term solutions. Yet stakeholders have diverse priorities and interests, which makes such coordination difficult. This study therefore analyzed the priorities, interests, and needs of various stakeholders who are involved in the Nan R4D platform, which was initiated as part of Humidtropics. The objective of this research is to: (1) describe needs and priorities of farmers in Nan, and interests and priorities of other stakeholders in the Nan agricultural innovation platform; and (2) identify which interests and goals are shared, and which are conflicting, among the various stakeholders. The research methods include in-depth interview, focus group discussion (FGD) and Q methodology. Fifty-six participants were divided into three activities. The first activity had 29 participants selected from the R4D platform to conduct a Q-sort, and the remaining participants were involved in focus group discussions and in-depth interviews. Participants' needs and priorities were revealed by using focus group discussion and in-depth interview. The results showed common issues in Nan Province relating the current agriculture. There are markets, natural disaster, self-sufficient, maize system, environmental conditions, knowledge, logistics and transportation, institutional advocacy, and productivities, while the needs and priorities of farmers are funding for farmland, knowledge from agricultural experts, seedling and seeds, supports from government, and water management. Furthermore, stakeholder's interests and priorities are Agroforestry, modern technologies, marketing channels, support about agricultural knowledge, beneficial research, marketable products, water management, and sufficiency economy based on Thailand King's theory. And also, the two distinctive framings elucidated from the Q analysis were research and development (R&D) and environmental issues. Additionally, results from Q methodology gives both the agreement and disagreement site. Participants are agreed in diversifying agriculture, livestock promotion, growing vegetable, helping from government, rubber plantation, pesticide damage, deforestation, growing own food, and other. On the other hand, participants have made disagreement site in leading food insecurity from maize growing, high debt from maize growing, and planting fruit trees on a sloping area. Besides, this study also gives recommendations to make innovation platform even more effective in Nan; likewise; find the appropriate institutional arrangement; regular meeting, preventing corrupt individuals from abusing and exploiting the platform; giving all stakeholders an equal voice; and ensuring that the platform directly benefits the local community. Eventually, participants expected to increase sustainability in the area and prioritize diversified agriculture that has potential value in the future.
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