Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: Polypyrrole/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Composites Combined with Gas Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Determination of Ultraviolet Filters and Metabolites in Water and Urine
作者: 廖昱甄
Yu-Chen Liao
關鍵字: ultraviolet filter;nanomaterial;gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer;紫外光吸收劑;奈米材料;氣相層析串聯質譜儀
引用: 1. Giokas, D. L.; Salvador, A.; Chisvert, A., UV filters: From sunscreens to human body and the environment. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2007, 26 (5), 360-374. 2. Kunz, P. Y.; Fent, K., Estrogenic activity of UV filter mixtures. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2006, 217 (1), 86-99. 3. Schreurs, R. H.; Sonneveld, E.; Jansen, J. H.; Seinen, W.; van der Burg, B., Interaction of polycyclic musks and UV filters with the estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), and progesterone receptor (PR) in reporter gene bioassays. Toxicological Sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology 2005, 83 (2), 264-72. 4. Tinwell, H.; Lefevre, P. A.; Moffat, G. J.; Burns, A.; Odum, J.; Spurway, T. D.; Orphanides, G.; Ashby, J., Confirmation of uterotrophic activity of 3-(4-methylbenzylidine)camphor in the immature rat. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002, 110 (5), 533-6. 5. Miller, D.; Wheals, B. B.; Beresford, N.; Sumpter, J. P., Estrogenic activity of phenolic additives determined by an in vitro yeast bioassay. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001, 109 (2), 133-8. 6. Schlumpf, M.; Cotton, B.; Conscience, M.; Haller, V.; Steinmann, B.; Lichtensteiger, W., In vitro and in vivo estrogenicity of UV screens. Environmental Health Perspectives 2001, 109 (3), 239-44. 7. Oz?ez, I.; Mart?nez-Guitarte, J. L.; Morcillo, G., The UV filter benzophenone 3 (BP-3) activates hormonal genes mimicking the action of ecdysone and alters embryo development in the insect Chironomus riparius (Diptera). Environmental Pollution 2014, 192 (0), 19-26. 8. Schmutzler, C.; Hamann, I.; Hofmann, P. J.; Kovacs, G.; Stemmler, L.; Mentrup, B.; Schomburg, L.; Ambrugger, P.; Gruters, A.; Seidlova-Wuttke, D.; Jarry, H.; Wuttke, W.; Kohrle, J., Endocrine active compounds affect thyrotropin and thyroid hormone levels in serum as well as endpoints of thyroid hormone action in liver, heart and kidney. Toxicology 2004, 205 (1-2), 95-102. 9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Code of Feberal Regulations, Title 21, Parts 70-82 for Colorants; Parts 330 – 360 for OTC drugs; Parts 700-740 for cosmetics 10. European Commission, Health and Consumers, Annex VI, LIST OF UV FILTERS ALLOWED IN COSMETIC PRODUCTS 11. Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, Notification No.331 of 2000, Standards for Cosmetics 12. Jeon, H. K.; Chung, Y.; Ryu, J. C., Simultaneous determination of benzophenone-type UV filters in water and soil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2006, 1131 (1-2), 192-202. 13. Leon-Gonzalez, Z.; Chisvert, A.; Fernandez, I.; Salvador, A., A solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the percutaneous absorption assessment of 3-(4[prime or minute]-methylbenzylidene)camphor via human urine analysis. Analytical Methods 2013, 5 (2), 367-375. 14. D?az-Cruz, M. S.; Barcel?, D., Chemical analysis and ecotoxicological effects of organic UV-absorbing compounds in aquatic ecosystems. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2009, 28 (6), 708-717. 15. Silvia D?az-Cruz, M.; Llorca, M.; Barcel?, D.; Barcel?, D., Organic UV filters and their photodegradates, metabolites and disinfection by-products in the aquatic environment. TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry 2008, 27 (10), 873-887. 16. Okereke, C. S.; Kadry, A. M.; Abdel-Rahman, M. S.; Davis, R. A.; Friedman, M. A., Metabolism of benzophenone-3 in rats. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 1993, 21 (5), 788-791. 17. Jeon, H.-K.; Sarma, S. N.; Kim, Y.-J.; Ryu, J.-C., Toxicokinetics and metabolisms of benzophenone-type UV filters in rats. Toxicology 2008, 248 (2–3), 89-95. 18. Gago-Ferrero, P.; Diaz-Cruz, M. S.; Barcelo, D., An overview of UV-absorbing compounds (organic UV filters) in aquatic biota. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2012, 404 (9), 2597-610. 19. Masse, M. O.; Herpol-Borremans, M.; Et, R. G.; Gleviczky, S., Sunscreens derived from paraaminobenzoic acid. Identification and dosage of N-propoxylated ethyl paraaminobenzoates in sun-creams. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 1982, 4 (6), 235-46. 20. Schmitz-Masse, M. O.; Herpol-Borremans, M.; Parmentier, F., Esters of para-aminobenzoic acid in cosmetics. Identification and dosage within sun-creams. International Journal of Cosmetic Science 1979, 1 (2), 101-10. 21. Meyer, T. A.; Powell, J. B., Quantitation of the nitrosamine 2-ethylhexyl-4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosoamino) benzoate (NPABAO) in sunscreen products. Journal - Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1991, 74 (5), 766-71. 22. Potard, G.; Laugel, C.; Schaefer, H.; Marty, J. P., The stripping technique: in vitro absorption and penetration of five UV filters on excised fresh human skin. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology 2000, 13 (6), 336-44. 23. Jiang, R.; Hayden, C. G.; Prankerd, R. J.; Roberts, M. S.; Benson, H. A., High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for common sunscreening agents in cosmetic products, bovine serum albumin solution and human plasma. Journal of Chromatography B, Biomedical applications 1996, 682 (1), 137-45. 24. Huang, H. Y.; Chiu, C. W.; Huang, I. Y.; Lee, S., Analyses of benzophenones by capillary electrochromatography using methacrylate ester-based monolithic columns. Journal of Chromatograph. A 2005, 1089 (1-2), 250-7. 25. Okereke, C. S.; Abdel-Rhaman, M. S.; Friedman, M. A., Disposition of benzophenone-3 after dermal administration in male rats. Toxicology Letters 1994, 73 (2), 113-22. 26. Negreira, N.; Rodriguez, I.; Ramil, M.; Rubi, E.; Cela, R., Sensitive determination of salicylate and benzophenone type UV filters in water samples using solid-phase microextraction, derivatization and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Analytica Chimica Acta 2009, 638 (1), 36-44. 27. Rodil, R.; Moeder, M.; Altenburger, R.; Schmitt-Jansen, M., Photostability and phytotoxicity of selected sunscreen agents and their degradation mixtures in water. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2009, 395 (5), 1513-1524. 28. Zhang, P. P.; Shi, Z. G.; Yu, Q. W.; Feng, Y. Q., A new device for magnetic stirring-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of UV filters in environmental water samples. Talanta 2011, 83 (5), 1711-5. 29. Huang, H.-Y.; Cheng, Y.-J.; Liu, W.-L.; Hsu, Y.-F.; Lee, S., Poly(divinylbenzene-alkyl methacrylate) monolithic stationary phases in capillary electrochromatography. Journal of Chromatography A 2010, 1217 (37), 5839-5847. 30. Felix, T.; Hall, B. J.; S. Brodbelt, J., Determination of benzophenone-3 and metabolites in water and human urine by solid-phase microextraction and quadrupole ion trap GC–MS. Analytica Chimica Acta 1998, 371 (2–3), 195-203. 31. Kawaguchi, M.; Ito, R.; Honda, H.; Endo, N.; Okanouchi, N.; Saito, K.; Seto, Y.; Nakazawa, H., Measurement of benzophenones in human urine samples by stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Analytical Sciences : the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry 2008, 24 (11), 1509-12. 32. Kawaguchi, M.; Ito, R.; Honda, H.; Endo, N.; Okanouchi, N.; Saito, K.; Seto, Y.; Nakazawa, H., Sensitive determination of salicylate an compounds in water sample by stir bar sorptive extraction with in situ derivatization and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2008, 1200 (2), 260-3. 33. Wu, J.-W.; Chen, H.-C.; Ding, W.-H., Ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction plus simultaneous silylation for rapid determination of salicylate and benzophenone-type ultraviolet filters in aqueous samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2013, 1302 (0), 20-27. 34. Laugel, C.; Nascimento, C. D.; Ferrier, D.; Marty, J. P.; Baillet, A., Contribution of ATR/FT-IR Spectroscopy for Studying the in Vivo Behavior of Octylmethoxycinnamate (OMC) after Topical Application. Applied Spectroscopy 2001, 55 (9), 1173-1180. 35. Meinerling, M.; Daniels, M., A validated method for the determination of traces of UV filters in fish using LC-MS/MS. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 2006, 386 (5), 1465-73. 36. Plagellat, C.; Kupper, T.; Furrer, R.; de Alencastro, L. F.; Grandjean, D.; Tarradellas, J., Concentrations and specific loads of UV filters in sewage sludge originating from a monitoring network in Switzerland. Chemosphere 2006, 62 (6), 915-25. 37. Balmer, M. E.; Buser, H. R.; Muller, M. D.; Poiger, T., Occurrence of some organic UV filters in wastewater, in surface waters, and in fish from Swiss Lakes. Environmental Science & Technology 2005, 39 (4), 953-62. 38. Buser, H. R.; Balmer, M. E.; Schmid, P.; Kohler, M., Occurrence of UV filters 4-methylbenzylidene camphor and octocrylene in fish from various Swiss rivers with inputs from wastewater treatment plants. Environmental Science & Technology 2006, 40 (5), 1427-31. 39. Giokas, D. L.; Sakkas, V. A.; Albanis, T. A.; Lampropoulou, D. A., Determination of UV-filter residues in bathing waters by liquid chromatography UV-diode array and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry after micelle mediated extraction-solvent back extraction. Journal of Chromatography A 2005, 1077 (1), 19-27. 40. Soliman, M. A.; Pedersen, J. A.; Suffet, I. H., Rapid gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening method for human pharmaceuticals, hormones, antioxidants and plasticizers in water. Journal of Chromatography A 2004, 1029 (1–2), 223-237. 41. Giokas, D. L.; Sakkas, V. A.; Albanis, T. A., Determination of residues of UV filters in natural waters by solid-phase extraction coupled to liquid chromatography–photodiode array detection and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2004, 1026 (1–2), 289-293. 42. Ho, Y.-C.; Ding, W.-H., Solid-phase Extraction Coupled Simple On-line Derivatization Gas Chromatography – Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in Aqueous Samples. Journal of the Chinese Chemical Society 2012, 59 (1), 107-113. 43. Vidal, L.; Chisvert, A.; Canals, A.; Salvador, A., Ionic liquid-based single-drop microextraction followed by liquid chromatography- ultraviolet spectrophotometry detection to determine typical UV filters in surface water samples. Talanta 2010, 81 (1-2), 549-55. 44. Rodil, R.; Moeder, M., Development of a method for the determination of UV filters in water samples using stir bar sorptive extraction and thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2008, 1179 (2), 81-8. 45. Rodil, R.; Schrader, S.; Moeder, M., Non-porous membrane-assisted liquid-liquid extraction of UV filter compounds from water samples. Journal of chromatography. A 2009, 1216 (24), 4887-94. 46. Tarazona, I.; Chisvert, A.; Leon, Z.; Salvador, A., Determination of hydroxylated benzophenone UV filters in sea water samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A 2010, 1217 (29), 4771-8. 47. Rom?n, I. P.; Chisvert, A.; Canals, A., Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles followed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry for UV-filter determination in water samples. Journal of Chromatography A 2011, 1218 (18), 2467-2475. 48. Ashby, M. F.; Ferreira, P. J.; Schodek, D. L., Chapter 7 - Nanomaterials: Properties. In Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies and Design, Ashby, M. F.; Ferreira, P. J.; Schodek, D. L., Eds. Butterworth-Heinemann: Boston, 2009, 199-255. 49. Cao, G., Nanostructures and Nanomaterials - Synthesis, Properties and Applications. World Scientific., 2004 50. Lucena, R.; Simonet, B. M.; C?rdenas, S.; Valc?rcel, M., Potential of nanoparticles in sample preparation. Journal of Chromatography A 2011, 1218 (4), 620-637. 51. Tian, J.; Xu, J.; Zhu, F.; Lu, T.; Su, C.; Ouyang, G., Application of nanomaterials in sample preparation. Journal of Chromatography A 2013, 1300 (0), 2-16. 52. Fryxell, G. E.; Cao, G., Environmental Applications of Nanomaterials - Synthesis, Sorbents and Sensors. World Scientific. 53. Nandiyanto, A. B. D.; Kim, S.-G.; Iskandar, F.; Okuyama, K., Synthesis of spherical mesoporous silica nanoparticles with nanometer-size controllable pores and outer diameters. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 2009, 120 (3), 447-453. 54. Wu, S.-H.; Mou, C.-Y.; Lin, H.-P., Synthesis of mesoporous silica nanoparticles. Chemical Society Reviews 2013, 42 (9), 3862-3875. 55. Chen, Y.; Chen, H.; Guo, L.; He, Q.; Chen, F.; Zhou, J.; Feng, J.; Shi, J., Hollow/Rattle-Type Mesoporous Nanostructures by a Structural Difference-Based Selective Etching Strategy. ACS Nano 2009, 4 (1), 529-539. 56. Iijima, S., Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon. Nature 1991, 354 (6348), 56-58. 57. Krueger, A., Carbon Nanotubes. In Carbon Materials and Nanotechnology, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: 2010; pp 123-281. 58. Saito, Y., Structures and Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes. In Carbon Nanotube and Related Field Emitters, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: 2010; pp 1-14. 59. Hou, P.-X.; Liu, C.; Cheng, H.-M., Purification of carbon nanotubes. Carbon 2008, 46 (15), 2003-2025. 60. Hu, H.; Zhao, B.; Itkis, M. E.; Haddon, R. C., Nitric Acid Purification of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry B 2003, 107 (50), 13838-13842. 61. Kudoh, Y., Properties of polypyrrole prepared by chemical polymerization using aqueous solution containing Fe2(SO4)3 and anionic surfactant. Synthetic Metals 1996, 79 (1), 17-22. 62. ?kodova, J.; Kopecky, D., Polypyrrole Nanotubes prepared by different azo-dyes. 63. Mohammadi, A.; Yamini, Y.; Alizadeh, N., Dodecylsulfate-doped polypyrrole film prepared by electrochemical fiber coating technique for headspace solid-phase microextraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Chromatography A 2005, 1063 (1–2), 1-8. 64. Tian, T.; Zhang, C.; Hu, W.; Kang, X.; Yang, J.; Gu, Z., Polypyrrole nanotubes for electrochemically controlled solid-phase extraction of anions and cations. Analytical Methods 2013, 5 (24), 7066-7071. 65. Brezoi, D. V. ; Brezoi, V.; Polypyrrole films prepared by chemical oxidation of pyrrole in aqueous FeCl3 solution. Journal of Science and Arts 2010 , 1 (12), 53-58. 66. Pan, L.; Qiu, H.; Dou, C.; Li, Y.; Pu, L.; Xu, J.; Shi, Y., Conducting Polymer Nanostructures: Template Synthesis and Applications in Energy Storage. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2010, 11 (7), 2636-2657. 67. Yang, Y.; Wan, M., Microtubules of polypyrrole synthesized by an electrochemical template-free method. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2001, 11 (8), 2022-2027. 68. Zang, J.; Li, C. M.; Bao, S.-J.; Cui, X.; Bao, Q.; Sun, C. Q., Template-Free Electrochemical Synthesis of Superhydrophilic Polypyrrole Nanofiber Network. Macromolecules 2008, 41 (19), 7053-7057. 69. Tingyang, D.; Xiaoming, Y.; Yun, L., Controlled growth of polypyrrole nanotubule/wire in the presence of a cationic surfactant. Nanotechnology 2006, 17 (12), 3028. 70. Kim, S. K.; Jeong, Y. N.; Ahmed, M. S.; You, J.-M.; Choi, H. C.; Jeon, S., Electrocatalytic determination of hydrazine by a glassy carbon electrode modified with PEDOP/MWCNTs–Pd nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical 2011, 153 (1), 246-251. 71. Gwon, H.; Kim, H.-S.; Lee, K. U.; Seo, D.-H.; Park, Y. C.; Lee, Y.-S.; Ahn, B. T.; Kang, K., Flexible energy storage devices based on graphene paper. Energy & Environmental Science 2011, 4 (4), 1277-1283. 72. Kingston, H. M. J. L. B., Introduction to microwave sample preparation : theory and practice. American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 1988. 73. Gedye, R.; Smith, F.; Westaway, K.; Ali, H.; Baldisera, L.; Laberge, L.; Rousell, J., The use of microwave ovens for rapid organic synthesis. Tetrahedron Letters 1986, 27 (3), 279-282. 74. de la Hoz, A.; Diaz-Ortiz, A.; Moreno, A., Microwaves in organic synthesis. Thermal and non-thermal microwave effects. Chemical Society Reviews 2005, 34 (2), 164-178. 75. Lidstr?m, P.; Tierney, J.; Wathey, B.; Westman, J., Microwave assisted organic synthesis—a review. Tetrahedron 2001, 57 (45), 9225-9283. 76. Chapter 1 Evolution of Microwave Irradiation and Its Introduction to the Biosciences. In Microwave Assisted Proteomics, The Royal Society of Chemistry: 2009; pp 1-9. 77. Kohan instruments Co., Ltd., MW theory and applications 78. John Roboz, 'Mass spectrometry in cancer research', CRC Press, 2002 79. Boyd, R. K.; Basic, C.; Bethem, R. A., Tools of the Trade V. Mass Analyzers for Quantitation: Separation of Ions by m/z Values. In Trace Quantitative Analysis by Mass Spectrometry, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: 2008; pp 245-343. 80. C. F. B? Kman, Analytical aspects of atmospheric pressure ionization in mass spectrometry; Uppsala University, 2002. 81. Zhang, B.; Xu, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Dai, L.; Zhang, M.; Yang, J.; Chen, Y.; Chen, X.; Zhou, J., A facile synthesis of polypyrrole/carbon nanotube composites with ultrathin, uniform and thickness-tunable polypyrrole shells. Nanoscale Research Letters 2011, 6, 431. 82. Zhao, L.; Zhao, G.; Chen, F.; Wang, Z.; Wu, J.; Hu, X., Different Effects of Microwave and Ultrasound on the Stability of (all-E)-Astaxanthin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2006, 54 (21), 8346-8351. 83. D??malov?, E.; Velebn?, V.; Sasinkov?, V.; Hrom?dkov?, Z.; Ebringerov?, A., Degradation of hyaluronan by ultrasonication in comparison to microwave and conventional heating. Carbohydrate Polymers 2005, 61 (4), 420-426. 84. Zhang, L.; Guo, X.; Yan, F.; Su, M.; Li, Y., Study of the degradation behaviour of dimethoate under microwave irradiation. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2007, 149 (3), 675-679.
In this study, a sensitive analytical method was developed for determination of the trace ultraviolet filters (UV filters) and metabolites in water and urine samples. Polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites (PPy/MWCNT) was successfully synthesized, and it can be applied as sorbents for extraction combined with gas chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry. In optimum conditions, 500 μLwater at pH4 or original urine samples containing 13 ultraviolet filters was added into 1.5 mL eppendorf. Then, 200 μL PPy/MWCNT solution was added into the sample and the mixture was sonicated (560W) for 30 seconds for extraction. After centrifugation, the supernatant was removed. 125 μL ethyl acetate was added into eppendorf then sonicated (280 W) for 30 seconds. The elutent was dried under nitrogen stream and dissolved by 25 μL MSTFA. The extracts were derivatized under 200 W microwave condition for 30 seconds and then dried under nitrogen stream. After redissolved by 25 μL EA, the extracts were analysed by GC-MS/MS system. The linearity of the proposed method ranged from 0.025 to 50 ng/mL for 2OH- BP, BP-2 and BP-6; 0.0125 to 18.75 ng/mL for BP-7; 0.05 to 15 ng/mL for HBP; 0.375 to 50 ng/mL for 4-MBC; 0.025 to 25 ng/mL for BP-3; 0.0125 to 50 ng/mL for BP-1; 0.05 to 100 ng/mL for BP-8 and BP-9; 0.0125 to 25 ng/mL for OD-BAPA, OMC and BP-12 with coefficients of determination (R2) above 0.9913. The limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were between 0.26 to 5.3 ng/L and 0.87 to 17.7 ng/L, respectively. The synthesized PPy/MWCNT material can extract analytes with high extraction efficiency and high selectivity. The proposed method can be applied to the determination of trace UV filters in water and urine samples.

本研究開發聚?咯/多層奈米碳管複合材料 (polypyrrole/ multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, PPy/MWCNT) 應用於水樣及尿液中 13 種紫外光吸收劑及其代謝物之萃取,並以微波輔助衍生化,結合氣相層析串聯質譜術之選擇反應偵測模式進行偵測之分析方法。實驗結果顯示於 500 μL pH 值調整為 4 的水樣及不調整 pH 值之尿液中,添加 200 μL 聚?咯/多層奈米碳管複合材料水溶液,以 560 W超音波震盪萃取 30 秒,可得最佳萃取效果;添加 125 μL 乙酸乙酯,於280 W超音波震盪下脫附 30 秒,可得最佳脫附效果;加入 25 μL MSTFA 衍生化試劑,並以200 W 微波輔助衍生 30 秒,可得最佳之衍生化效果。利用最佳萃取、脫附、衍生條件並於氣相層析串聯質譜偵測條件下分析水中 2OH-BP、BP-2 及 BP-6 的線性範圍為 0.025 至 50 ng/mL;BP-7 的線性範圍為 0.0125 至 18.75 ng/mL;HBP 的線性範圍為 0.05 至 15 ng/mL;4-MBC 的線性範圍為0.375至 50 ng/mL;BP-3 的線性範圍為 0.025 至 25 ng/mL;BP-1 的線性範圍為 0.0125 至 50ng/mL;BP-8 及 BP-9 的線性範圍為 0.05 至 100 ng/mL;OD-BAPA、OMC 及 BP-12 的線性範圍則為 0.0125 至 25 ng/mL,線性相關係數 (R2) 均在 0.9913 以上,偵測極限介於 0.26 到 10.6 ng/L 之間。本研究方法合成之奈米複合材料對於分析物具高選擇性且具有高萃取效率,可應用於水中及尿液中微量紫外光吸收劑之檢測參考。
Rights: 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務
Appears in Collections:化學系所

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-103-7101051052-1.pdf5.29 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.