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標題: 明渠流通過固床工下游粗糙底床沖刷坑之紊流流場分析
Investigation of turbulent channel flow over a rough scour hole downstream of a groundsill
作者: 王忠翔
Zhong-Xiang Wang
關鍵字: Particle image velocimetry;rough bed;scour hole;Turbulence intensity;Reynold stress;質點影像測速儀;粗糙底床;沖刷坑;紊流強度;雷諾應力
引用: 1. 方富民,邊界層理論,中興大學,2010。 2. 何淑君,透水框架群應用於固床工下游沖刷保護之研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2009。 3. 吳禹霆,室內軟弱岩石射流沖刷設備建立,國立交通大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2012。 4. 吳紋瑩,雙道固床工下游沖刷之室內試驗研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2012。 5. 林呈,跨河構造物防制沖刷之技術與策略研究(應用剛性或柔性攔砂堰作為橋基保護方法之評估探討),行政院公共工程委員會專案研究計畫,1999。 6. 施如學,丁壩沖刷坑的三維水流流態數值模擬,重慶交通大學碩士論文,2014。 7. 張天鋒,光滑渠槽明渠流通過透水四面體框架之紊流特性研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2002。 8. 張凱博,變量流作用下之固床工沖刷室內試驗研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2010。 9. 郭耀麒、張耀澤,柔性固床工之破壞機制與保護方式水槽試驗案例研究,經濟部水利署,水利,第16期,第201-210頁,2006。 10. 陳志強,室內軟弱岩石河道沖刷坑試驗,國立交通大學土木工程學系碩士論文,2013。 11. 彭思顯,投潭水作用下局部沖刷之動態研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,1994。 12. 楊翰宗(1998),陡坡光滑渠流水力特性之研究,國立中興大學土木工程學系碩士論文,1998。 13. Adrian, R. J., (1991). 'Particle-image techniques for experimental fluid mechanics', Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics 23, 261-304. 14. Bennett, S.J. and Alonso C.V., (2006). 'Turbulent flow and bed pressure within headcut scour holes due to plane reattached jets' J. Hydraul. Res.,44(4), 510-521. 15. Breusers, H. N. C., (1966). 'Conformity and time scale in two-dimensional local scour' Proc. Symposium on model and prototype conformity: 1-8, Hydraulic research Laboratory Poona (also Delft Hydraulic, Delft, Publication 40). 16. Gaudio, R. and Marion, A., (2003). 'Time evolution of scouring downstream of bed sills' J. Hydraul. Res., 41(3), 271-284. 17. Gaudio, R., Marion, A., and Bovolin, V. (2000). 'Morphological effects of bed sills in degrading rivers' J. Hydraul. Res., 38(2), 89-96. 18. Grass, A. J. (1971).'Structural Features of Turbulent Flow over Smooth and Rough Boundaries.'J. Fluid mech., Vol. 50, PP.233-255. 19. Hoffmans, G. J. C. M., anf Verheji, H. J. (1997). 'Scouring manual' Balkema, Rotterdam, The Nethelands. 20. Huang, H.T., Fiedler, H.E., Wang, J.J. (1993). 'Limitation and improvement of PIV. Part I: Limitation of conventional techniques due to deformation of particle image patterns' , Experiments in Fluids 15, 168-174. 21. Keane, R. D., Adrian, R. J. (1990). 'Optimization of particle image velocimeters. I. Double pulsed systems', Measurement and Science and Technology 1, 1202-1215. 22. Keane, R. D., Adrian, R. J. (1992),'Theory of cross-correlation analysis of PIV images', Applied Scientific Research 49, 191-215. 23. Nezu, I. and Nakagawa, H. (1993). 'Turbulent structures and bursting phenomena over roughness discontinuity in open channel flows' turbulent structures and related environment in various water flows, Scientific Research Activities, 122-129. 24. Nezu, I. and Rodi, W. (1986). 'Open-channel flow measurements with a laser Doppler anemometer' J. Hydraul Eng., 112(5), 335-355. 25. Pao, H. F. (1967). 'Fluid dynamics.'Charles E.Merrillbooks, Inc. Columbus, Ohio. 26. Schlichting, H. (1979).'boundary layer theory.' Seventh Edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company , 596-602. 27. Temple, D. M. (1986). 'Velocity distribution coefficients for grass-lined channels' J. Hydraul. Eng., 113(2), 193-205. 28. Theunissen, R., Scarano, F., & Riethmuller, M. L. (2007). 'An adaptivesampling and windowing interrogation method in PIV ' Measurement Science & Technology,18(1), 275-287. 29. Utami, T., Blackwelder, R. F., Ueno, T. (1991). ' A cross-correlation technique for velocity-field extraction from particulate visualization' Experiments in Fluids 10, 213-223. 30. Webel, G. and Schatzmann, M. (1984).'Transverse mixing in open Channel Flow.' J.Hydr. Engrg., ASCE. Vol. 110, No.4, PP.423-435. 31. Westerweel, J. (1997).'Fundamentals of digital particle image velocimetry' , Measurement science and technology 8, pp. 1379-1392. 32. Willert, C. E., Gharib, M. (1991). 'Digital particle image velocimeter' Experiments in Fluids 10, 181-193. 33. Zanke,U. (1978). 'Zusammenhange zwischen stromung und sedimenttransport' Mitt. Des Franzius Instituts der Univ. Hannover, Nr. 47,Nr. 48 (in German).
本研究進行重複性動床剖面試驗,經無因次化後比對文獻中之沖刷坑剖面,選定未平衡與平衡代表性沖刷坑各一,製作定床沖刷坑模型。藉由PIV進行明渠流通過固床工下游粗糙底床沖刷坑之流場試驗,並以同坡度(S = 1%)不同流量(Q=0.003 ~ 0.0085 cms)條件進行流場特性與物理機制之探討。

Due to the precipitous topography, rapid flow and fractal geology, severe scouring of the riverbed which may damage the hydraulic structures, frequently occurs in Taiwan. Although groundsill helps to stabilize the riverbed, it usually causes local scour downstream. In recent year, most researchers emphasize the estimation of the maximum scour depth and the characteristics of the flow field during the equilibrium condition. The main objective of this study is to clarify the similarities and differences of the flow characteristics between the equilibrium and non-equilibrium scour holes so as to provide a reference for numerical simulation and practical application in the future.
In this study, typical equilibrium and non-equilibrium scour holes were selected based on the laboratory movable bed tests and the results in the literature. Two acrylic models of the scour holes were then placed into a 12 m long re-circulating flume for the fixed bed tests. The flow characteristics and physical mechanism were analysed for conditions with a fixed slope (1%) and various flow discharges(0.003~0.0085 cms).
According to the experiment with the equilibrium scour hole, the size of the hydraulic jump has positive correlation with the flow discharge, and the location of the jump moves downstream with an increase of the flow discharge. However, the re-attachment point (size of reverse flow zone) decreases with an increase of the flow discharge For the non-equilibrium scour hole tests, howerer, the location of the re-attachment point are not significantly affected by the flow discharge. In addition, the dimensionless turbulence intensities and Reynolds stress for the equilibrium scour hole tests are higher than those for the non-equilibrium scour hole tests. the peak value (absolute) of the dimensionless Reynolds stress in a vertical usually occurs closer to the water surface for the equilibrium scour hole test as compared with that for the non-equilibrium case, indicating move severe bed scour may occur at the early stage of the scouring process (non-equilibrium) in a movable bed condition.
其他識別: U0005-0608201523462400
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2017-08-25起公開。
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