Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9098
標題: 以心率變異度之頻域分析為基礎所實現的嵌入式瞌睡偵測系統
Embedded System Implementation of Drowsiness Detection Based on Frequency Domain Analysis of Heart Rate Variability
作者: 羅華義
Luo, Hua-I
關鍵字: 心率變異度;heart rate variability;瞌睡偵測系統;人機介面;心電訊號;功率頻譜密度;嵌入式系統;軟硬體橋接器;系統單晶片;drowsiness detection system;Cheetah development kit;graphical user interface;electrocardiography;power spectral density;embedded system;HW-SW Bridge;system on chip
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] Anonymous, “12-Lead ECG monitoring with EASI lead system”, Agilent Technologies, application note, 2000. [2] 陳學儒, A High-Precision Real-Time Premature Ventricular Contraction(PVC) Detection System Based on Wavelet Transform, 國立中興大學電機工程學系碩士學位論文, 2011. [3] N. V. Thakor and Y.-S. Zhu, “Applications of adaptive filtering to ECG analysis: noise cancellation and arrhythmia detection,” IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 785-794, 1991. [4] 吳欣龍,“Introduction to AMBA Bus System,”工研院系統晶片技術中心. [5] A. Malliani, F. Lombardi, and M. Pagani, “Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability: a tool to explore neural regulatory mechanisms”, Br Heart J 1994 71: 1-2. [6] 韓欽銓,陳映濃,王宇晨,黃敏彧, “打瞌睡警告及防撞系統,” 行政院國家科學委員會補助專題研究計畫期中報告, 2009. [7] R.-D. Chiu and S.-H. Wu, “A BAN system for real time ECG monitoring : From wired to wireless measurements,” in Proc. IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC), March.2011, pp. 2107 – 2112. [8] V. Mukala, V. Lakafosis, A. Traille, and M.M. Tentzeris, “A novel Zigbee-based low-cost, low-power wireless EKG system,” in Proc. IEEE Microwave Symposium Digest (MTT), May. 2010, pp. 624 – 627. [9] B. A. Walker, A. H. Khandoker, and J. Black, “Low cost ECG monitor for developing countries,” in Proc. IEEE Intelligent Sensors, Sensor Networks and Information Processing (ISSNIP), Dec. 2009, pp. 195 – 199. [10] 曾永進, The Wireless Portable ECG Monitoring System via Bluetooth, 逢甲大學自動控制工程學系碩士論文, 2005. [11] A. Malliani, F. Lombardi, and M. Pagani, “Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability: a tool to explore neural regulatory mechanisms,” British Heart Journal, 1994. [12] 方馨譽, “利用智慧型ECG信號處理來顯示人類情緒指數,” 大專生參與專題研究計劃, 2001. [13] P. Naiyanetr, P. Charoentong, and W. Charoensuk, “ECG system with heart rate variability application,” IEEE Region 10 Conference, Nov. 2004, pp. 435 - 437. [14] E. Michail, A. Kokonozi, and I. Chouvarda, “EEG and HRV markers of sleepiness and loss of control during car driving,” in Proc. Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS), Aug. 2008, pp. 2566 – 2569. [15] W. Wu and J. Lee, “Improvement of HRV methodology for positive/negative emotion assessment,” in Proc. Collaborative Computing: Networking, Applications and Worksharing, Nov. 2009, pp. 1 – 6. [16] 林育德, Principle and Verification of ECG Signal Amplifier Design, 逢甲大學自動控制工程學系專題論文, 2005. [17] 黃明智, A Digital Signal Processing Based Method for Establishing the relationship Between the HRV and RDI, 國立中山大學機械與機電工程學系碩士論文, 2006. [18] 劉芸澧, Hardware Implementation of Wearable Electrocardiograph and Development of Nonlinear Analysis for Physiological Signals, 逢甲大學自動控制工程學系碩士論文, 2003. [19] 黃楷倫, Effect of Intermittent Hypoxia on Electroencephalogram, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Neural Regulation in Rats, 慈濟大學神經科學研究所碩士論文, 2008. [20] 胡威志, The Development of a Portable Biosignal Recording System, 中原大學生物醫學工程學系碩士學位論文, 2007. [21] Y.-W. Bai, W.-Y. Chu, C.-Y. Chen, Y.-T. Lee, Y.-C. Tsai, and C.-H. Tsai, “Adjustable 60Hz noise reduction by a notch filter for ECG signals,” in Proc. IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, May 2004, pp. 1706 - 1711. [22] http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECG [23] http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/數字濾波器 [24] http://www.polar.fi/e_manuals/RCX3
摘要: 
全世界的汽車普及率越來越高,近年來因駕駛員疲勞駕駛所引起的交通意外事故時有所聞,駕駛員之工作本質上屬於精神類型,當駕駛人疲勞時會有動作呆板、視線模糊、精神恍惚、反應遲鈍等現象,此時往往會出現短時間睡眠現象,嚴重時會失去對車輛的控制能力,此現象尤其容易發生在長時間且高速的行駛狀態,如果不經過短暫的休息或者改變駕駛人的注意力,仍勉強駕駛車輛則可能導致嚴重的交通意外發生。

一般的瞌睡的偵測法方可能使用點頭頻率或者眼部閉合的方法來判斷,但上述的方式通常是駕駛已經進入瞌睡狀態,因此無法在第一時間預防與警告駕駛人,本論文使用心率變異度(heart rate variability, HRV)在頻域上的分析來偵測駕駛人是否進入瞌睡狀態,此種方式有別於由外部擷取資訊來進行判斷,較能準確且即早的發現駕駛人是否已經進入短暫的睡眠狀態,有利於即早發出警告來防止交通意外的發生。

本論文提出的瞌睡偵測系統(drowsiness detection system)使用Cheetah development kit (CDK)來實現與驗證結果,在PC上發展出人機介面(graphical user interface, GUI),能即時的觀察到心電訊號(electrocardiography, ECG)的波形與心率變異度的功率頻譜密度(power spectral density, PSD)分析結果,本系統以嵌入式系統(embedded system)的方式實現,在硬體架構中加入軟硬體橋接器模組(HW-SW Bridge)讓擴充的硬體模組更容易整合到當前的系統中,以嵌入式系統的方式實現將有利於日後進行系統單晶片(system on chip, SOC)的發展與實現。

Vehicle penetration rate rapidly increases in the word. In recent years, car accidents caused by fatigued driving and drowsy driving are raised. Driving is spiritually exhausted types of work. There are several symptom of tired drowsy driving such as awkward movements, blurred vision, trance, unresponsive…etc.. While drowsy driving happens, it accompanies with short duration sleep and losing control of driving. Drowsy driving is usually happening during high-speed driving. If the driver doesn’t take a rest or keeps spirits up, drowsy driving might cause serious traffic accidents.

Generally, measuring the frequency of nod or close of eyes are the methods to judge the drowsiness state. However, the measuring information can only be gotten during drowsy condition. Hence, it is hard to measure drowsy information and to warn drowsy driver earlier. The thesis will use frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) to detect if drowsiness state happens. This way is different than detect by external feature. It can early and exactly detect whether short duration sleep happens. It is a profitable way to prevent traffic accidents.

The thesis proposes a drowsiness detection system, which is implemented by Cheetah development kit (CDK) and uses graphical user interface (GUI) in PC. It can immediately display electrocardiography (ECG) waveform and power spectral density (PSD) analysis of heart rate variability. The system based on embedded system and hardware system added HW-SW Bridge that integrates easily for all system to promote system on chip (SOC) implementation in the future.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9098
其他識別: U0005-2108201201320800
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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